Folio investing aum shinrikyo

Published в Mona crypto | Октябрь 2, 2012

folio investing aum shinrikyo

increased investments could significantly accelerate the pace of progress. The most William Rosenau, Aum Shinrikyo, Al Qaeda, and the. In , the Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo sprayed anthrax In general, CARB-X may do well to diversify its investment portfolio. Aum Shinrikyo used sarin in Japan in difficulties were compounded by the declines In foreign investment inflows and increases in. MECONOPSIS BETONICIFOLIA CULTIVATION PLACE

The collection consists of genealogical information, a small amount of correspondence, Jacob Rosenberg's journal and notebook which includes his memoir of his childhood and his experiences leaving Prussia and then settling and working in Northern California , handwritten prayer books Jacob Correspondence; photographs; college transcripts; newspaper clippings; essays and sketches from when Rubel was a student; articles about the mail order business; and patents for powdered antiseptics.

Includes marriage certificate, passports, citizenship certificate, etc. The collection consists of a copy of an undated photograph of Voorsanger and photocopies of essays that he wrote and published in the Emanu-El newspaper. Washington, D. Papers of a bio-statistician who taught at the University of California, containing correspondence and subject files concerning his interest in public health. Complementary reports one a continuous narrative, the other written as 22 daily entries concerning an exploring expedition in the Southwest undertaken by Sedelmayr and twenty-four soldiers, from Busani, near Caborca, to the Gila-Colorado River area of Southern Arizona, then descending This collection is comprised of documents and artifacts belonging to members of the Jacobowitz family and document their experiences during the Holocaust while imprisoned in Westerbork Concentration Camp in the Netherlands and in Terezin concentration camp in Czechoslovakia.

Teaching slide collection of Allan B. The collection includes files from his publicity firm 15 linear feet ; production files from his motion pictures 65 linear feet ; art work; photographs; sound recordings; books and other memorabilia. This collection contains production material for the movie The Chairman produced by Arthur P. Jacobs This is a collection of videorecordings of Arnold B. This collection contains the papers of bankers and businessmen Barron Jacobs and Lionel Jacobs of Tucson and Tombstone, Arizona, and their family, including correspondence of the Jacobs brothers and their mercantile and banking operations; family letters; and financial Correspondence, writings, printed matter, maps, and photographs relating to cavalry tactics, logistics, and military transportation during and after World Wars I and II.

The files in this collection consist of typed and handwritten materials resulting in the publication of Horace Jacob's dissertation, "Rene Schickele as a mediator in Franco-German relations" Relates to the arrest of J. Writings, correspondence, reports, and printed matter relating to various aspects of American diplomacy, especially reconstruction in Korea, mutual security programs in Europe after World War II, the Italian communist movement, the Philippine independence movement, and the Shanghai riot of May Correspondence with the philosopher Sidney Hook and printed matter relating to Hook.

Dance and souvenir programs for Ted Shawn and his Men Dancers, , and for the Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival, and ; publicity materials and dance programs, circa , for dancers Barton Mumaw and Foster Fitz-Simons; stylized drawings, circa , The Proverb Jacobs Papers include newspaper clippings, souvenir programs, correspondence, curriculum vitae, handwritten notes, pamphlets, The collection contains the original manuscript of the novel from which the film was adapted, early research materials, adaptation notes, Accountability would come, principally, from the transparent nature of the Council's activities and the publicity of its results.

This review board would operate in consultation with representatives of other interested parties, such as private industry, national governments, and patient advocacy groups. The formation and operation of the Council would result in greater efficiency within the global health system; increased mitigation of health, social, and economic risks due to infectious disease; and the improved protection of at-risk populations.

The preceding enumeration of Council activities and attributes is not intended to be exhaustive. Ideally, before the Council's formation, a rigorous landscape analysis of existing global health organizations and the activities they perform would be conducted in order to: 1 identify the most significant shortcomings of the current system, including redundancies; 2 confirm the need for the Technical Council; and 3 establish a comprehensive strategy for the Council's funding, structure, and initial plan of action.

As stated above, the proposed Council could potentially be housed within the WHO or another body , or it could be established as a free-standing entity. If housed within the WHO, the purely technical and apolitical nature of the body would bolster the legitimacy of WHO recommendations and activities with regard to infectious disease threats.

In this vein, it would be important for Council experts to be granted the autonomy to make their assessments and recommendations independently of any political influence from WHO leadership. On the other hand, if the Council were established as a separate entity, any resultant competition that emerged between the Council and the WHO would likely represent a boon for the global community, as it would force both the Council and the WHO to step up their games in order to remain relevant in the space of infectious disease threats.

Indeed, experts have previously cited the benefits of competition in other domains of global health and international development — Conclusion Uncertainty abounds with respect to infectious disease threats and their consequences. Nevertheless, outbreaks and epidemics are virtually guaranteed to continue, AMR will remain a threat as long as we rely on standard antimicrobial therapies, and biosecurity risks are an inherent consequence of pathogen research and of human conflict. Fortunately, responses exist to all these forms of infectious disease threats.

The world currently lacks a unified system for developing and implementing these responses in an efficient, coordinated fashion. The establishment of a multidisciplinary Global Technical Council on Infectious Disease Threats would go a long way to reduce unnecessary waste within the global health system, redirect resources where needed, and mitigate the risks posed by infectious disease.

Author's Note Tables 1 — 3 , along with small portions of this article, have been adapted, expanded, and updated from an earlier article by Bloom et al. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The authors also thank Francesco Berlanda Scorza, Frank Baehner, and a third anonymous reviewer for their constructive feedback, and they thank Aldo Tagliabue for his support throughout the editorial process. References 1. The geography and mortality of the influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med. Johnson NP, Mueller J. A deadly touch of flu Economist. Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for causes of death: reference and alternative scenarios for for countries and territories.

Emerg Infect Dis. Reviewing the history of pandemic influenza: understanding patterns of emergence and transmission. An African HIV-1 sequence from and implications for the origin of the epidemic. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. World Health Organization Cholera Cholera epidemic in Yemen, an analysis of surveillance data.

Lancet Glob Health. Weinraub B. Smallpox grows in India; worst over, officials say. New York Times. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Post T, Clifton T. The plague of panic. Transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome on aircraft. N Engl J Med. Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. Carroll R, Tuckman J. Swine flu: Mexico braces for unprecedented lockdown.

Welch C. CNN; Partlow J. As Zika virus spreads, El Salvador asks women not to get pregnant until Washington Post. Geneva: WHO Press; World Health Organization Lassa Fever. World Health Organization Nipah Virus. World Health Organization Zika Virus. The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance Antimicrobial resistance: tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations World Health Organization; Bacillus anthracis incident, Kameido, Tokyo, Ramzy A.

Japan hangs cult leader for subway attack. Shane S. After 8 years, F. McNeil DG. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template. Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments. Kupferschmidt K. Centers Dis Control Prev; Valuing the broader benefits of dengue vaccination, with a preliminary application to Brazil. Semin Immunol.

The impact of dengue on tourism in Brazil: an empirical study. Assessing the economics of dengue: results from a systematic review of the literature and expert survey. Ahmedabad: Indian Institute of Management; J African Trade. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Dev. Pandemic risk: how large are the expected losses?

Bull World Health Organ.

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They were replaced by an Aum member who is an Australian citizen and Tsuyoshi Maki, a Japanese citizen who had been part of the Aum's original advance team. Maki handled the details of the sale and seemed anxious that the sale proceed quickly.

The Aum's activity on the property is partially known and, to some degree, still a mystery. Various police sources indicate that Hayakawa was interested in extracting uranium from Australia for the development of nuclear weapons.

Documents seized from Hayakawa include some ten pages written during Hayakawa's April-May visit to Australia which refer to the whereabouts of properties of uranium in Australia, including one reference praising the quality of the uranium in the state of South Autralia. Australia is one of the world's leading exporters of uranium ore.

It appears, however, that the Aum was interested in more than just mining on the Banjawam property. The Chairwoman for the aboriginal community living near the sheep station, Phyllis Thomas, said that she and other Aborigines saw about five people wearing full- length suits and helmets on the remote site in late August The suited sect members were standing by a twin engine airplane and others were in the plane.

In March , shortly after the Tokyo subway attack, the Australian police were invited to the sheep station by its new owners who had found papers with Japanese writing and various chemicals. The chemicals that police found could have been used for mineral processing or to make an irritant gas. They included perchloric acid, nitric acid, ferric chloride, ammonia solution, hydrochloric acid, chloroform, potassium dichromate, and other unidentified solutions. The Staff has confirmed that these chemicals are almost identical to the chemicals carried on board the aircraft by Asahara and his people when they flew to Perth in Only liters of each chemical was found in an outhouse which bore a sign saying "Laboratory,' while larger quantities were located in a portable building.

Although the Aum members had originally stated that the chemicals they sought to bring into Australia were for the purposes of gold mining, there was no evidence of gold mining having been carried out. The current owners of the property have stated that the Japanese occupants had a number of gas masks in their possession but that they took them when they left. One gas mask was left behind and seized by Australian police.

Paper dust masks were also located in a plastic bag bearing Japanese writing. The Staff has confirmed that the Aum conducted experiments with sarin on sheep at its property in Banjawarn. He said that tests on wool and soil samples taken from the Banjawarn station had confirmed traces of the chemical.

Kerr said that sarin residue had been found in and near a group of about 29 dead sheep on the station. Specifically, traces of the acid that results when sarin breaks down was found in the soil and in the wool of the sheep found in the area. In addition, authorities found a document writn in Japanese and titled 'Banjawam Station. The document contained notations for classifying dead or injured sheep by using unique Japanese markings.

Australian Federal Police have also confirmed that some of the sheep were killed with blunt force to the head. Although the office purported to promote the cult's book sales and recruitment of followers, the Staffs review of records and documents, and interviews of the manager of the New York office, establish that the office was also acting as a purchasing agent for the cult as it attempted to obtain high technology equipment, computer software and hardware, and other items from the United States, much of which was intended to assist the cult's militarization program.

Additionally, in the 's the cult utilized a purchasing agent in California to facilitate acquisition of similar technology and hardware, and military equipment such as gas masks. The total extent of the Aum's efforts to obtain equipment and technology in the United States is not known. As indicated in this section, some of the items sought by the Aum were not delivered because U. This is a good example of self- policing by the private sector and efforts to sensitize industry to their responsibility should be promoted.

Other purchases appear to have been preempted only by the Aum's March 20th attack which gave notice to all of their criminal intentions. And, in certain instances, the Aum was simply able to access technology whose use is still unaccounted for.

Although the Staff is aware that U. The articles of incorporation were amended in and at that time Chisuo Matsumoto appeared as Director of the corporation. Chisuo Matsumoto is the lay name of Asahara. The articles established the Aum as a tax exempt organization. The purposes for which the corporation is formed are to foster spiritual development through the study and practice of eastern philosophy and religion to encourage means for extending awareness sic , such as meditation, seminars, classes, workshops, to offer nutritional information and exercises which will further the development of spiritual well-being.

Hiraoka describes herself as a nun and sect leader of the New York branch of the cult. She indicated she is in her early 40's, although she is unable to be more exact as she measures her age in "monk" years. Based upon observations made by the Staff during interviews with her, she clearly is still a devotee of Asahara. The Staff has reviewed the business records of the cult's New York Office provided by Hiraoka pursuant to subpoena.

It should be noted that the records provided may not reflect all of the cult's activities. According to Hiraoka, in late March , within days after the subway attack in Tokyo, Hiramatsu appeared at the New York Office and took numerous records of the cult's transactions back to Japan. There is substantial documentation of efforts by Hiraoka and her staff to sell dozens of books published by the Aum such as Is Aum Shinrikyo Insane?

A review of the records provided, however, establishes that the cult in the years preceding the attack sold less than books per year. During this same time period, despite a claim of aggressive recruitment by Hiraoka, the cult maintained an active membership of less than a few dozen devotees in the New York area.

Some governmental sources estimate that the number was much higher, closer to There is no evidence to support the higher number. There was also an Aum member in Colorado, according to Hiraoka, who was in regular contact with the New York Office and translated Asahara's work into English. A review of the telephone records reflects very substantial telephone communications both internationally to Japan and elsewhere including Canada, Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, Taiwan, Israel, Australia, Sri Lanka, Ghana and Nigeria, and domestically within the United States.

As expected, there was substantial telephone activity in the days following the March 20, subway attack. Interestingly, in the days following the subway attack, the New York Office of the cult recognized they had a substantial public relations problem. It transmitted the following message to numerous "experts" or "would-be experts": "To Whom It May Concern: The Independent Research Committee for the Tokyo Subway Gas Attack urgently needs a group of impartial specialists from various fields.

Please read the following guidelines and call if interested in this investigation. We will greatly appreciate your cooperation. The Staffs investigation further reflects that the cult's New York office was actively involved in the procurement and attempted procurement of high technology items with possible military use. Though most of the documents at the Aum's headquarters were taken by the cult after the Tokyo incident, entries in the Aum's ledger reflect various payments to technology and laser companies.

In documents receivd from Hiraoka the above entities claim the cult's New York offices as their corporate headquarters or their New York office. Further, other directors and officers of these corporations are Aum members. Undoubtedly, based upon the above, R is clear that these corporations were alter egos of the cult itself wholly controlled by the cult and intended to conduct the cult's business.

Through these companies and the effortof its agents including Hiraoka, Hiramatsu and others, the Aum negotiated for purchase of various items. The Mark IVxp is a laser measuring system primarily used for measuring lens systems, optical components and flat and spherical surfaces. The U. Commerce Department prohibits the export of this machine to certain countries including Libya, Iran, North Korea and Cuba.

In August of , representatives of Zygo received contacts from the Aum, including telefaxes from Hiraoka. Additionally, the Aum requested a vibration isolation table which with modest reconfiguration can be used to measure spherical surfaces including plutonium used in nuclear weapons. Ultimately, the Aum did not receive the system. According to Zygo, the transaction was never consummated because Zygo became suspicious of the transaction and contacted export licensing authorities.

This media, which is roll goods, is utilized for air filtration in "clean rooms. According to representatives with Cache, the entire contact with the Aum consisted of a telephone call requesting literature, a sales order and a shipment. The software purchased was the most basic in their product line, consisting of a manual and computer diskettes. According to Cache representatives, their product enables a chemist to synthesize molecular experimentation on a computer screen instead of in a laboratory, which results in savings of time and money.

He also stated that downloads from other databanks i. In a similar effort, Hiramatsu, on behalf of the Aum, contacted Biosym Technologies, Incorporated, also a molecular design software company, located in San Diego. Additionally, Biosym uploaded approximately twenty samples out of available from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank.

According to the company, they are a licensee of Brookhaven Laboratories and are authorized to distribute information from the data bank. Following the Tokyo gas attack, the computer hardware was returned to Biosym but the disk drive containing the software was missing.

Allegedly, this disk drive was taken to Japan. The drive was later returned to osym by the Aum but it is unknown if the sect was able to download the information it contained. There were protections on the software to prevent such unauthorized removal. The software, as in the case with other company's products sought by the Aum, is used to model molecular structures during scientific and medical research.

Experts told the Staff that the Aum could use such advanced software to assist them in testing theoretical designs for toxins. It should be noted that this software is covered by export restrictions to countries such as China. The fact that Japan is not among the countries included in such restrictions demonstrate that sub- national groups located in nonrestricted countries, and who are engaged in development of sophisticated weapons, are not affected by export restrictions. In the weeks and days preceding the March20, , Tokyo subway attack, the Aum attempted to purchase a half million dollar laser system from the California manufacturing company, Hobart Laser Products of Livermore, California.

In March, , Hiramatsu, contacted sales and technical representatives of Hobart. Hobart manufactures extremely sophisticated lasers for industrial and scientific applications involving cutting and welding. According to the company, for approximately two weeks leading up to March 18, , the Aum negotiated for the purchase of a three kilowatt Laser Welder with installation support. In their contact with Murai and in a subsequent meeting with Hobart representatives on March 8 in the United States, Hobart representatives attempted, to no avail, to determine the intended usage of the equipment.

From the dscussions with Hiramatsu and Murai, the operating parameter set forth by Murai, allowed Hobart to draw the following technical conclusions: The Aum wanted the laser to be operable from within a glove box, a sealed room environment, outside of which the operator could manipulate the equipment through the usage of thick gloves.

Experts have advised the staff that this is particularly useful if biologic toxins, aerobic or contact poisons, or nuclear emissions are of concern. Murai indicated the laser would be used to weld aluminum oxide AIOx. The welding was to be of canisters, and perhaps canisters within canisters. AIOx is highly resistant to chemical corrosion, even more so than stainless steel, and the welder can operate with liquid nitrogen as a coolant. It is also extremely strong and can withstand high pressure.

Aum had allegedly stockpiled large amounts of sheet AIOx for this purpose. Of primary concern to Hiramatsuand Murai was the rapid delivery of this expensive laser. Hobart representatives were told that it was required immediately and cash was available. This request was impossible: the laser is custom built, after receipt of the order it would probably would take several weeks to months to complete and ship.

Hobart told the Staff that there are also serious export control requirements. Hobart's representative also told the Staff that he learned that Hiramatsu was buying up antiquated chip manufacturing equipment and stockpiling same in California for shipment to a front company in Silicon valley. The Staff has been advised by various U. These sources indicate that these companies would then be used to justify the importation and usage of chemicals such as arsenide, chlorides and fluorides, which can be obtained in the wafer and chip-etching business but are more realistically used by the Aum for the manufacture of toxic nerve and blood gases.

The company specializes in molecular design software. This software is used by highly trained physicists and chemists to develop new therapeutic drugs in the preclinical design phase. It can also be used to research and develop biological toxins. According to the company's Chief Executive Officer, people without extensive experience in this area would have difficulty in using and applying the software.

According to Tripos sales personnel, Tripos was suspicious of Hiramatsu's motives regarding the purchase of their software from early on. During the course of their contacts with Hiramatsu, he consistently refused to provide detailed information on either the company Aum or the intended use for the software. Tripos installed all the available "modules" of their software on a computer workstation provided by the Aum. The software had keyword protection and was timed to expire thirty days after installation.

Following the revelation that the Aum was suspected in the Tokyo gas attack, Tripos attempted to retrieve the software. The disk drive containing the software was intercepted by U. While the software did have keyword protection, this could have easily been bypassed. The thirty day expiration protection could also be avoided by turning back the internal clock on the computer in which it is installed. The last contact Tripos had with Hiramatsu was on March 21, , the day after the Tokyo gas attack.

The CEO of Tripos told the Staff that the software could be used to determine if a scientific configuration was feasible but wold only be the first step in development. He stated that biological toxins are relatively simple and the software was much more sophisticated than what would be needed to develop toxins.

West Coast Activities Beginning in June , the Aum established a relationship with a purchasing agent on the West Coast to assist in obtaining military technology and hardware. Through telefax, telephone, and personal contacts, ICP developed a business relationship with Hiramtsu and Tsuyoshi Maki and began to obtain computer parts presumably for the Aum's computer stores in Japan. The Staff has interviewed principals with ICP and reviewed their records. ICP estimates that their business with the Aum exceeded a few million dollars by the end of However, near the end of , Hiramatsu began to make requests for other items.

Initially, Hiramatsu wanted to obtain thousands of "serum" bottles, hundreds of mechanical fans and equal amounts of camcorder batteries. Later, Hiramtsu began to inquire about obtaining laser equipment, survival equipment and similar items. At one point, Hiramatsu asked whether ICP knew how to obtain "arms," a plane, and "container ships. ICP told Aum representatives they could not obtain these items but directed him to the U. Chamber of Commerce. In January , the Staff has learned that Maki and Hiramatsu began to seek military equipment from sources in the United States.

Maki inquired about survival equipment and expressed an interest in obtaining gas masks. A week after the January meeting, Rothco, through telefax received a request from Devenir Millionaire, Inc. In the shipment were a Russian and Japanese gas mask.

Rothco shipped these items without applying for or obtaining a State Department license which is required. Maki, however, requested that Rothco send the gas masks to ICP of Freemont, California, who would act as a freight consolidator. ICP received the items after Hiramatsu indicated that the Aum wanted to consolidate the items it had obtained in the United States. Various containers were forwarded to ICP, including boxes from Rothco. ICP, through a freight forwarder, started the process of sending the items to Japan in March of On March 22, , two days after the Tokyo attack, a source from Japan contacted ICP in California, and told company representatives that he should stop selling to Maha Posya because they were killing people in Japan.

Rupani looked in the shipment and discovered it included the gasmasks. Helicopter Training in Florida In , two Japanese followers of the cult visited the United States to obtain pilot licenses for private helicopters. They both had U. They received a private pilot rating for rotor craft-helicopters on October 31, Soon after receipt of their licenses, the cult obtained the helicopter from Russia D.

Some of these countries appear to have been used for recruitment purposes, while others appear to have been used for the establishment of purchasing companies or other businesses. In at least one country it appears the Aum attempted to obtain scientific information. The office was ostensibly rented for administrative and cultural purposes. A woman named Yoko Shigimara-Haltod, a resident of Bonn, signed the lease and paid the monthly rent.

Two telephone numbers are listed for the office in the name of Naruhito Noda; however, no one by that name is listed in the Bonn Population Office. In June , the Aum sent a letter to the German Embassy in Tokyo requesting permission to send one of its members, Akira Wakatake, to reside in Germany for three years. According to the letter, Wakatake had been a member of the A since and was a teacher of meditation techniques and yoga.

The letter stated that the Aum would be responsible for any costs arising during Wakatake's stay in Germany, as well as for his personal conduct while in Germany. Wakatake entered Germany in February A sign on the Aum office thereafter read "A. Wakatake Buddhismus and Yoga Center Aum. The Aum was not very successful in recruiting members in Germany. According to press statements made by Wakatake, ten German nationals -- but.

At least one member, a French national named Pauline Silbermann- Hashimoto who is married to a Japanese citizen, resided in Munich. It is unclear whether the Bonn office was used for anything other than recruitment efforts; however, on March 21, , the day after the Tokyo subway attack, Shoko Asahara telephoned Wakatake in Bonn and dictated to him the text of a press communique to be given to the news agency, Agence France Presse AFP in Paris.

The communique denied any involvement in the subway incident and accused the Japanese authorities of wanting to eradicate the Aum. Wakatake sent this communique to Silbermann-Hashimoto, asking her to translate it into Frenchnd to send it to the AFP. German law enforcement authorities have no records of any illegal activities by either Wakatake for Silbermann-Hashimoto. Taiwan While the Aum's presence in Germany seemed to have been primarily for recruitment purposes, it's presence in Taiwan was more business- oriented.

In June , the Aum established a company in Taiwan by the name of Dai Hanei Great Prosperity as a purchasing agent, ostensibly for the purchase of computer parts. Japanese press, citing police sources, have reported that from April to March the Aum sent more than 2. According to the police sources, when Maha Posya sent more than 5 million yen at a time it reported the money as being used to buy computer parts.

The remaining 2. The police sources reportedly quoted bank officials in Tokyo as saying that a high-ranking Aum member, who was an executive of Maha Posya and the cult's former Finance Minister, was the individual who made the remittances to Dai Hanei. The sources are also reported to have confirmed that Aum leader Shoko Asahara and the Maha Posya executive visited Taiwan frequently in It reportedly owns considerable assets in Sri Lanka, including a tea plantation that the Aum began operating in The Staff has confirmed that the plantation is managed by an individual named Seizo lmoto and that it uses local citizens as employees.

The Aum apparently has had several problems operating the plantation, though, including an inability to pay its employees. Following the attack on the Tokyo subway, a local organization of Buddhist monks petitioned the Sri Lankan President to confiscate the property of the cult and ban it from the country. Sri Lankan police did investigate the plantation, but nothing was found to indicate any connection between the plantation's operations and the sarin attack.

The Former Yugoslavia At some point, the Aum became very interested in the ideas and inventions of Nikola Tesia, a scientist who experimented in the fields of atmospherics, electromagnetics, fluid dynamics, and geodynamics in the early 's. In January , Hiraoka, the manager of the New York Office, sought to obtain from the Society a number of books on the inventions of Tesia, his patents, and writings. When the Staff inquired as to why the Aum would be interested in Tesia's work, the official speculated that they may have sought information on Tesia's experiments with resonating frequencies.

He stated that Tesia had experimented in creating earthquakes and that Tesia was quoted as saying that with his technology he could "split the world" in two. He also noted that Tesia had developed a "ray" gun in the 's which was actually a particle beam accelerator. According to the official, this gun was reported to be able to shoot down an airplane at miles. The official also told the Staff that upon Tesia's death the U. When members of the Society have requested information on Tesia's work under the Freedom of Information Act, much of the material has been "black penned" for national security reasons.

It was for this reason that the Aum sent some of its members to the former Yugoslavia. The Staff has confirmed that from February to April of this year, six members of the cult traveled to the Tesia Museum in Belgrade. There they studied Tesia's writings on something known as the Tesia Coil, a coil used for alternating current. The members also studied Tesia's work on high energy voltage transmission and on wave amplification, which Tesia asserted could be used to create seismological disturbances.

Paganism Expert B. Learn about our Editorial Process Updated on July 13, In , a deadly sarin gas attack in Tokyo claimed the lives of a dozen subway passengers, injured fifty more, and left thousands struggling to see when the gas filled their train cars. In , Matsumoto changed his name to Shoko Asahara. Asahara was born into a large and impoverished family in the Kumamoto Prefecture. He had limited vision in one eye, but was considered legally blind, and his parents enrolled him in a school for the blind.

He soon developed a reputation at school for being a bully, and is said to have physically attacked other students and extorted money from his peers. After failing to be accepted into a university, Asahara began studying traditional Eastern herbal medicine in Within a few years, he was charged with practicing pharmacy without a license.

Around this period, Asahara began exploring multiple spiritual perspectives: Taoism, Buddhism, the Hindu religion, and astrology. In the early s, Asahara published a book in which he declared himself to be Christ. He called himself the Lamb of God.

Asahara announced that it was his job to take on the sins of the world, and that for this reason he could relieve anyone who followed him of their sins. He also wrote a detailed manifesto outlining his doomsday prophecy, which included a third world war started by the United States.

Asahara claimed that only those who joined him in his new group, Aum Shinrikyo, would survive these end times. Although Aum Shinrikyo was fairly controversial, it also attracted many highly educated and financially well-off people, and soon became known as a religious group for the elite of Japanese society.

Their plan of salvation included spiritual healing to cure physical illnesses, positive thinking to improve intelligence, and living by ascetic practices. However, as the years passed and new Aum Shinrikyo members grew disillusioned, word began to leak out that new recruits were being held against their will and forced to donate money to the group. A lawyer named Tsutsumi Sakamoto, who had been representing families of cult members , disappeared in along with his wife and toddler son. When their bodies were found six years later, authorities concluded that they were murdered by members of Aum Shinrikyo.

In , Aum Shinrikyo group began to secretly manufacture sarin and VX gas in a lab at their compound. They tested the substances on sheep, then proceeded to use the gas in several assassination attempts over the next year and a half. In , Aum Shinrikyo members released a cloud of sarin into the Japanese city of Matsumoto, killing eight people and injuring The targeted neighborhood was home to several judges who were sitting on the council of a real estate lawsuit, which was expected to go against Aum Shinrikyo.

Unfortunately, police were unable to determine that the cult was behind the attack. Tokyo Subway Attack Victims of the subway sarin gas attack in a hospital waiting room. Asahara was tipped off about the police investigation and decided it was time for a distraction.

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It was later revealed that the site was owned by the Aum Shinrikyo cult. They were mining Uranium at the site and there were speculations of a small nuclear bomb detonating there. The Tokyo subway sarin gas attack in was carried out by a religious cult called Aum Shinrikyo. The group also had anthrax and ebola cultures, their own Russian military helicopter, and had manufactured enough sarin to kill 4 million people. The Tokyo subway sarin attacks in which 12 died and over were injured many permanently.

The attack was perpetrated by Aum Shinrikyo, a shadowy doomsday cult. Almost a year before the subway sarin attack, Aum Shinrikyo had released sarin in Matsumoto. Injury people and killing seven. What was the goal of aum shinrikyo?

We shall continue to exist in other forms, but we shall prevail by all means. By July , the Russian press stated that Russian authorities began arreing Aum members. In early July, Russian authorities detained the leader of the Tatarstan branch of the Aum. The leader there told Russian reporters that his branch had followers. On July 21, , Russian law enforcement officials arrested one of the leaders of the Russian branch of the sect, Outi Toshiyatsu, who is a Japanese citizen.

Russian authorities charged Toshiyatsu with organizing groups that infringe on citizens' rights and with causing material damage by cheating or breaching confidence. There has been no trial yet. The press as well as the parent's organization opposed to the Aum, have publicly criticized the inaction of Russian authorities in closing the Aum headquarters in Moscow following the court's decree. According to their allegations, only one of the Aum's seven centers was closed immediately.

In that center, reporters claim that authorities found powders and unpackaged tablets. Arming With Russian Weapons It is clear that the Aum was interested in the technology and weapons that are available in Russia. He was also the mastermind of the Aum's attempts to arm itself, according to Japanese officials and cult documents. In total, Hayakawa visited Russia 21 times from , spending a total of days there.

The first recorded visit took place from January , He visited three other times before mid-March of that year -- presumably paving the way for Asahara's late March visit. From November to April , Hayakawa visited Russia regularly between one and two times a month.

Hayakawa was in Russia from March of this year during the sarin attack in Tokyo. He said that he was there to learn about the judiciary system and to renew broadcasting contracts. The Staff believes that Hayakawa played a key role in obtaining technology and weapons from Russia. Hayakawa helped to purchase a Soviet-made MI helicopter and invited Russian engineers to Japan to help train sect members to maintain the helicopter, according to official Japanese documents.

According to a Japanese Diet member who was giving a report to the Japanese legislature, the helicopter was built in Tatarstan. The Japanese official states that Russian law enforcement authorities were conducting a probe into an alleged bribe of a former Russian parliamentarian in connection with the purchase of the helicopter, according to the Japanese press.

The Diet member said that the former Russian parliamentarian allegedly helped expedite the acquisition through Azerbaijan and that the Russian lawmaker under investigation is from the Caucasus and has great influence in that region. The Staff has confirmed that the helicopter passed through Japanese Customs in via Azerbaijan Air and that the Aum subsequently inquired about certification for a larger MI helicopter and requirements to fly an MI to Japan from Russia.

Japanese police sours also allege that Hayakawa brought pistol models to Japan from Russia in the Spring of in order to produce the pistols in Japan, according to press reports. These sources also claim that documents seized from Hayakawa upon his arrest included blueprints for the Soviet Kalashnikov assault rifle.

There are many allegations that Aum members may have received military training in Russia. Official Japanese documents and press reports state that a tourist brochure printed by Devenir Millionaire, an Aum- affiliated travel company located in Tokyo, described a tour of Russia that included shooting exercises at Russian military facilities.

The brochure claimed that the exercises were performed under the supervision of former Spetznaz members of the Russian armed forces. Furukawa was in charge of planning military training in Russia under a special Russian unit. As indicated elsewhere in this statement, the Staff has confirmed that Kibe did receive helicopter training in South Florida in late In contrast, the Staff found the following Russian and Japanese press reports: Russian military sources told Japanese reporters that Asahara inspected a military base near Moscow in the summer of , but stated that no training took place at that time.

Together with a number of followers, he met military officials there for talks, and inspected the grounds. The officials pointed out that not only Asahara and his followers but many other foreigners were also given access to the base.

A Russian diplomatic source told Russian reporters that, "for many the military is letting in outsiders regardless of whether they are visiting officially or on a private trip. The Chief of Staff of the Far Eastern Military District of Ruia has publicly denied rumors that Aum members were trained as pilots at his base but admitted that there are many private firms and air companies with helicopters at their disposal.

The spokesman opined that one of these firms or a pilots' club may have trained the sect members. He noted that in the local press published a report concerning the death of a Japanese tourist in the crash of a helicopter belonging to a private company. In addition to obtaining conventional arms and training, the Aum apparently saw Russia as a source for more exotic, and far more deadly, weapons. At the time of his arrest, Hayakawa had information about a gas laser weapon.

His documents referred to the name of a Russian city where 'There is a weapons market" and noted its distance from Moscow, according to Japanese press. Hayakawa's documents also indicated that the sect was interested in obtaining a space-launch rocket, according to the Japanese press. According to press acounts, Japanese officials said that the documents include a reference to a Russian Proton rocket and reference its prices and the need to build a base in Japan.

The Proton rocket is capable of carrying a satellite. Recently, however, the public relations office of the Center announced that the Center has never had any contact with the sect. The Aum's interests apparently extended to the most devastating of weapons.

There are references in the documents seized from Hayakawa to the desired purchase of nuclear weapons. The documents contain the question "how much is a nuclear warhead? It is unclear whether the references are reflections of actual discussions or negotiations. Allegations of Influence In Russia Much has been written in the press about the relationship between the Aum and officials of thRussian government. Most of these allegations have been denied, in whole or in part, by the officials in question.

Little has actually been confirmed by U. The following are some of the allegations made by Russian and Japanese press reports: That Asahara led a delegation of Aum members to Russia in March That Russian parliamentarian Vitaliy Savitsky, chairman of the Duma's Religious Affairs Committee told fellow parliamentarians that, " his committee seriously suspected that Aum Shinrikyo had been assisted in its penetration into Russia by Russian intelligence services.

That during Aum leaders visiting Russia approached Russian science ofcials to seek laser and nuclear technologies and that Shoko Asahara met Nikolay Basov while Asahara was. Basov is a Nobel prize winner for his research on the principle of laser technology. This relationship started in December and continued through That a Russian known to be a secretary of Lobov' sent facsimiles to Hayakawa in Japan and that Hayakawa visited Lobov during his visits to Russia throughout the time period.

That no one from Moscow asked Russian Embassy officials to check out the Aum and that Lobov met with Aum officials on his own, without informing the Embassy or asking its advice. The sources said that the February meeting was agreed to without the participation of the Russian Foreign Ministry or intelligence services prior to Lobov's trip to Japan. No leading Embassy staffers were present at the meeting.

All of the officials have denied allegations that they helped the Aum. Furthermore, in a press statement quoted on page one of the March 30, , Russian language edition of Mowcow Izvetsiya, Lobov admit to meeting with Aum officials but states that he was duped by them due to his "charitable nature" and neither the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs nor the Russian intelligence service warned him away from them.

The Staff has reviewed an official Japanese document that corroborate limited aspects of the above allegations. The document states: In Fall , Aum Shinrikyo gave a message promising aid to Russia, to a Russian business person in Tokyo who had been asking many organizations for such aid.

In December , this business person visited Rusa with Hayakawa, then the cult's administration director, and met with Mr. Muravjbv, the Secretary General, and Mr. Khushchov, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. In February , Mr. Lobov was invited to Japan by Nissho-Iwai Co. In March , by chartering an Aeroflot aircraft, a delegation of cult followers headed by Asahara visited Russia and met with Rutskoy, Khasbulatov, and Lobov.

In addition, the Staff has been able to confirm, through a visit to the Kurchatov Institute, that an employee of the Institute was, and still is, a member of the Aum. The nature of any of the relationships alleged above, if indeed a relationship existed, remains unconfirmed. The Staff has confirmed that there are some Aum disciples in Kiev, Ukraine. They petitioned government officials in Kiev to recognize the Aum as an official religious group in September The Ukrainian government ignored the request.

The request included the names of ten Ukrainians from Kiev who claimed that they were Aum members. In December , the Aum petitioned for recognition in Belarus. In Belarus, the capital city officials rejected the request to open an Aum branch and banned Aum from using radio facilities to air religious messages. From documents provided to the Staff by the Australian Federal Police, the Staff determined the cult purchased a , acre sheep farm in Baniawarn, Australia located approximately miles northeast of Perth, Western Australia's state capital.

In order to purchase this farm, the cult formed a front company named Clarity Investments, Ltd. Maha Posya was also used to import electrical equipment including transformers, static converters, generators, coaxial cabling, batteries, meters and tools and protective equipment into Australia in September The three included Construction Minister Kiyohide Hayakawa, who was also the person instrumental in setting up the Aum's operations in Russia, and Intelligence Minister Yoshihiro Inoue.

They hired an Australian citizen of Japanese heritage who was a real estate agent based in Perth, to view remote farming properties in Western Australia which were then for sale. They were evasive with the agent about their specific requirements; however, it became apparent that they were looking for a remote area with and conditions.

The group indicated that they wanted to inspect properties where they could conduct experiments of benefit to humankind. The group was flown to several properties in the period April After landing at each station, they went off by themselves for some hours. While inspecting these properties, they conducted unknown experiments utilizing a laptop computer, attachments, and electrodes which were placed in the ground.

Hayakawa and another of the Aum leaders in the threesome may have also traveled to Tasmania and an area in South Australia where a large uranium deposit is located. Ultimately, the group decided on the property in Banjawarn, an area where there is a known uranium deposit. In April , Hayakawa allegedly offered to purchase Banjawam Station for cash; however, the offer was refused by the - owner. These companies were created for the claimed purpose of applying for mining and exploration leases.

Asahara and Yasuko Shimada, an Australian citizen of Japanese descent and sect member were named as directors of each company. Hayakawa contacted a consulting geologist after learning that Banjawarn Station is a pastoral lease, meaning that other individuals could enter the property for the purpose of prospecting for minerals. Hayakawa did not want any unauthorized person to enter Banjawarn Station. The Staff has confirmed that at about this same time Hayakawa and another cult member, Tsuyoshi Maki, applied for tourist visas at the Australian Embassy in Tokyo.

Hayakawa and Maki arrived in Perth on September 3, Shortly after arriving in Australia, they met with their consulting geologist. During that meeting they told the geologist that they wished to obtain a ship and inquired of her what price they could expect to pay. They also mentioned at the meeting that they wanted to export the uranium ore from Banjawarn Station in 44 gallon drums. During the following week, Hayakawa and Maki engaged an Australian travel agent to make arrangements for six four-wheel drive vehicles and a chartered aircraft.

The Staff has confirmed that at the end of that week cult leader Shoko Asahara arrived in Perth with 24 followers from Japan, including five females under the age of fifteen who were traveling without their parents. According to the Australian Federal Police report, among the baggage was a mechanical ditch digger, picks, petrol generators, gas masks, respirators, and shovels.

Because of the large amount of excess baggage being brought in by the group, Australian Customs searched the entire group. This search revealed four liters of concentrated hydrochloric acid, including some in containers marked as hand soap. Among the other chemicals that Australian customs officials found were ammonium chloride, sodium sulphate, perchloric acid, and ammonium water. All of the chemicals and some of the laboratory equipment were seized by Australian authorities.

The two claimed that the acid was for gold mining. These same two individuals were later arrested by Japanese authorities in connection with the Tokyo subway attack. Australian authorities believe that the cult planned the logistics for transporting their goods to Banjawarn Station well in advance of the trip. They chartered three aircrafts and, having lost their chemicals to Australian authorities, the Aum used their real estate agent and their geologist, both of whom were Australian citizens, to obtain new chemicals for them from chemical wholesalers.

These chemicals were obtained either in the name of Maha Posya or in the name of the real estate agent's company. All payments for the chemicals were made in cash. The Aum apparently went to great lengths to obtain these chemicals, including flying one of their members over 4, miles from Perth to Melbourne to obtain two 25 gram bottles of a chemical unavailable in Perth. The Aum also tried to hire earthmoving equipment from a mining operation at an adjoining station.

The mine operators refused to lend the equipment without a mine worker to operate it to which the Aum did not agree. A backhoe was hired by the Aum without an operator from a rental company for three days, September , Digging and evidence of earthmoving equipment has been found on the property. The Aum also established a laboratory on the Banjawarn property which was stocked with computers and various digital and laboratory equipment. The door of the laboratory was marked with Japanese characters and an English subtitle which read "Toyoda Laboratory.

Witnesses told Australian Federal Police that the laboratory contained laptop computers, digital equipment, glass tubing, glass evaporators, beakers, bunsen burners, and ceramic grinding and mixing bowls. There were limestone or calcrete type rocks on the floor. Other equipment included a small laboratory-size rock crushing machine and two small generators. The Staff has confirmed from Australian authorities that most of the sect members who are Japanese citizens left Australia by 4 October In October Asahara and four of the original group applied for tourist visas to return to Australia; however, acting on information provided by Australian Federal Police, the immigration department refused them visas, along with visas for twelve other Aum members.

Asahara petitioned his visa denial with a letter to the Australian Federal Minister for Immigration. In the letter he said he was blind and needed the help of 2 aids. Also, because his life was unr threat, he said he needed 17 bodyguards to accompany him on his trip to Australia.

He said that his Tokyo headquarters had been sprayed with diluted harmful gas and that during trips to Russia he had received bomb threats. In late October , two other Aum members did obtain visas. While there, one of the Aum members petitioned the Western Australian Pastoral Board to de-stock Banjawarn station of its sheep.

This petition was denied. Inspections by Western Australian Pasostral Board members revealed that several wells were either fouled or not operating and the Board called for an Australian manager to be hired for the property or the lease would be revoked.

The sect members did hire a manager. While at the property, the manager says that the two sect members maintained constant contact with their superiors in Japan, with instructions being received by fax or telephone. The manager did not witness any experiments or mineral exploration.

The equipment and chemicals inside the laboratory were removed about March or April to accommodate sheep-shearing teams. The Aum members insisted that either the sheep not be shorn or that they be shorn by others who would be flown in from Japan.

Approximately 2, sheep were subsequently sold to a slaughterhouse shortly after shearing. On April 28, these two cult members returned to Japan. They were replaced by an Aum member who is an Australian citizen and Tsuyoshi Maki, a Japanese citizen who had been part of the Aum's original advance team.

Maki handled the details of the sale and seemed anxious that the sale proceed quickly. The Aum's activity on the property is partially known and, to some degree, still a mystery. Various police sources indicate that Hayakawa was interested in extracting uranium from Australia for the development of nuclear weapons.

Documents seized from Hayakawa include some ten pages written during Hayakawa's April-May visit to Australia which refer to the whereabouts of properties of uranium in Australia, including one reference praising the quality of the uranium in the state of South Autralia. Australia is one of the world's leading exporters of uranium ore.

It appears, however, that the Aum was interested in more than just mining on the Banjawam property. The Chairwoman for the aboriginal community living near the sheep station, Phyllis Thomas, said that she and other Aborigines saw about five people wearing full- length suits and helmets on the remote site in late August The suited sect members were standing by a twin engine airplane and others were in the plane.

In March , shortly after the Tokyo subway attack, the Australian police were invited to the sheep station by its new owners who had found papers with Japanese writing and various chemicals. The chemicals that police found could have been used for mineral processing or to make an irritant gas.

They included perchloric acid, nitric acid, ferric chloride, ammonia solution, hydrochloric acid, chloroform, potassium dichromate, and other unidentified solutions. The Staff has confirmed that these chemicals are almost identical to the chemicals carried on board the aircraft by Asahara and his people when they flew to Perth in Only liters of each chemical was found in an outhouse which bore a sign saying "Laboratory,' while larger quantities were located in a portable building.

Although the Aum members had originally stated that the chemicals they sought to bring into Australia were for the purposes of gold mining, there was no evidence of gold mining having been carried out. The current owners of the property have stated that the Japanese occupants had a number of gas masks in their possession but that they took them when they left.

One gas mask was left behind and seized by Australian police. Paper dust masks were also located in a plastic bag bearing Japanese writing. The Staff has confirmed that the Aum conducted experiments with sarin on sheep at its property in Banjawarn. He said that tests on wool and soil samples taken from the Banjawarn station had confirmed traces of the chemical. Kerr said that sarin residue had been found in and near a group of about 29 dead sheep on the station. Specifically, traces of the acid that results when sarin breaks down was found in the soil and in the wool of the sheep found in the area.

In addition, authorities found a document writn in Japanese and titled 'Banjawam Station. The document contained notations for classifying dead or injured sheep by using unique Japanese markings. Australian Federal Police have also confirmed that some of the sheep were killed with blunt force to the head. Although the office purported to promote the cult's book sales and recruitment of followers, the Staffs review of records and documents, and interviews of the manager of the New York office, establish that the office was also acting as a purchasing agent for the cult as it attempted to obtain high technology equipment, computer software and hardware, and other items from the United States, much of which was intended to assist the cult's militarization program.

Additionally, in the 's the cult utilized a purchasing agent in California to facilitate acquisition of similar technology and hardware, and military equipment such as gas masks. The total extent of the Aum's efforts to obtain equipment and technology in the United States is not known. As indicated in this section, some of the items sought by the Aum were not delivered because U.

This is a good example of self- policing by the private sector and efforts to sensitize industry to their responsibility should be promoted. Other purchases appear to have been preempted only by the Aum's March 20th attack which gave notice to all of their criminal intentions.

And, in certain instances, the Aum was simply able to access technology whose use is still unaccounted for. Although the Staff is aware that U. The articles of incorporation were amended in and at that time Chisuo Matsumoto appeared as Director of the corporation. Chisuo Matsumoto is the lay name of Asahara. The articles established the Aum as a tax exempt organization. The purposes for which the corporation is formed are to foster spiritual development through the study and practice of eastern philosophy and religion to encourage means for extending awareness sic , such as meditation, seminars, classes, workshops, to offer nutritional information and exercises which will further the development of spiritual well-being.

Hiraoka describes herself as a nun and sect leader of the New York branch of the cult. She indicated she is in her early 40's, although she is unable to be more exact as she measures her age in "monk" years. Based upon observations made by the Staff during interviews with her, she clearly is still a devotee of Asahara. The Staff has reviewed the business records of the cult's New York Office provided by Hiraoka pursuant to subpoena. It should be noted that the records provided may not reflect all of the cult's activities.

According to Hiraoka, in late March , within days after the subway attack in Tokyo, Hiramatsu appeared at the New York Office and took numerous records of the cult's transactions back to Japan. There is substantial documentation of efforts by Hiraoka and her staff to sell dozens of books published by the Aum such as Is Aum Shinrikyo Insane?

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