Investing adder using ic-7410 power supply

Published в Coastline forex factory | Октябрь 2, 2012

investing adder using ic-7410 power supply

AEG Power Solutions GmbH. AEM Performance Electronics Beijing Chiplight IC Design Co., Ltd. Beijing Novel‐Super Media Investment Co., Ltd. Tower's eligibility to receive grants was with respect to investments in Fab 2 zero mask adder NVM solution specifically for Power and Power Management. including the use of an all-source request for proposal significant incremental investment in Indiana that will benefit Indiana. FOREXPROS VIX FUTURES QUOTE

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Edited by Tom "Tomcat" Kneitel, it's got all the best writers in the CB field, plus great extras for the swl, vhf buff, or would-be ham. S9 not only tells you what's happening now, but what's going to happen in the future and why.

Must reading for every CBer from 18 to If you're already a ham, or about to become one, you'll love CQ. Features stories on all the top recording stars, and what goes into the sound they make. Heavily electronic oriented. Covers, mixers, amplifiers, instruments, and naturally, people. For the Electronic Hobbyist A brand new monthly magazine that covers all phases of hobby electronics with a different twist.

Modern Electronics tells you what's new in computers, audio, electronic gadgets, personal communications, and TV games. But it goes much further. This mag covers what's new and why. How-to-do-it projects galore. Many new devices never before covered in any electronic magazine.

You can't be without it. Date No. Thus, the Field Disturbance Sensor is difficult to defeat, versatile and easy to build owing to a low parts count, and readily available components can be used. Initial adjustments require only a multimeter. Theory of Operation. The resistance of each cell is determined by the amount of light reaching it. When the field of view is norma! If an object passes through, is added to, or removed from the field, the intensity of light impinging on the cells, and thus their resistance values, deviates from the chosen norm.

The schematic diagram of the Sensor is shown in Fig. These references are designated and Vlt. The upper threshold V jT is applied to the noninverting input of! Dimensions for cutting PVC pipe to make lens assembly energize the alarm. If the photocells are affected in the opposite manner, V n will drop below its initial value.

In effect, we have set up a voltage window by adjusting R2. This window is centered around V n. Any variation in V sj which exceeds this voltage window activates the alarm. The window can be made very narrow—on the order of a few millivolts at the maximum sensitivity of the Sensor. The project comprises a lens assembly, a printed circuit board, and a base.

The lens is 2" in diameter and has a focal length of 2" A lens tube can be fabricated from a cardboard mailing tube, aluminum or PVC pipe. Two-inch I. PVC pipe is easily cut to size and cements readily to other plastics and wood. Dimensions for the lens tube are shown in Fig. When the rings and lens are properly positioned in the tube, the rings should be secured in place with a few drops of cement.

The prototype has a hole centered on the bottom side of the base tapped for 14" x 20 threads. This facilitates mounting the project on a camera tripod. Place the cells side by side on a flat surface about 6" No current flows through alarm A1. When V N is greater than VuT. Instructions and dimensions for assembling the base. A hole in the bottom can be used for tripod mounting.

Etching and drilling guide below and component placement for pc board. Then mount the LDFTs on the base assembly, securing them with cement. The photocells should be spaced as far apart as possible, but be sure they can be encompassed by the lens tube. Then cement the lens tube to the base assembly. Suitable etching and drilling and parts placement guides for the printed circuit board are shown in Fig.

Be sure to leave enough wire for the leads to reach their respective components when the printed circuit board is installed. Battery holders for the four AA cells can be mounted directly on the board. Then install the batteries in their holder. The project should start beeping loudly. Remember that adequate ambient light is required for correct operation of the project.

Apply the positive probe of a voltmeter to point Vjn and the negative lead to ground battery negative. Adjust R1 for a reading of approximately 3 volts. Then move the negative probe to point V n and the positive probe to Vyj. The sensor is now operational. Have some fun trying to outwit it! Closer in, the project will detect such changes as smoke or fire.

Also, more sensitive photocells could be employed. There are obviously many possibilities for those inclined to experiment! Battery life will depend on the number and duration of alarms. H AVE YOU ever matched your color enlarger's filter pack to a negative, only to discover that the resulting color print's color quality was imperfect? This problem can be solved by using an inexpensive voltage regulator, such as the one presented here.

Isolation transformer T1 applies volts rms ac to modular bridge rectifier RECTI, Pulsating dc from the bridge is filtered by electrolytic capacitors Cl and C2 into a fairly smooth volt dc level. Zener diodes 01 and D2 together with resistor R2, form a voltage regulator.

The series zener combination produces a regulated output of volts dc. Unless the line voltage decreases greatly, there will always be enough current in the zener diodes to keep them operating in the avalanche region. Most enlargers use incandescent 63 JPigiX circuit has zener diode regulation and amplifier pair. Photo shows how prototype was made with point-tb-point wiring.

Transformer T1 can be made by modifying a readily available model. This shows the parts of the transformer disassembled and ready for re-winding. Photo of assembled prototype shows transformer. See text. The cost of such diodes is prohibitive. However, the Darlington amplifier composed of Q1 and Q2 allows the use of small 1-watt zener diodes.

Two diode voltage drops approximately 1. The voltage regulator as shown has been successfully used with enlargers containing watt incandescent bulbs. The project should be housed in a 5' x 2W x When you have procured all necessary parts , lay them out in the box as in Fig. Drill mounting holes for those parts which are directly attached to the box fuseholder, terminal strips, power switch, retaining band for the electrolytic capacitor, etc.

Make a cutout in the box to allow clearance for the socket used with Q2. Holding the transistor in place, turn the heat sink over and lay two fiber shoulder washers on the holes drilled in the heat sink for the transistor's retaining screws. Secure the assembly with machine screws. It might be necessary to enlarge the threads in the transistor socket with a tap to accommodate the machine screws, Be sure that the shoulder washers isolate the machine screws from the heat sink.

Separate the transformer mounting bracket from the laminated iron core by bending the two metal tabs on the bottom of the bracket outward. This will allow the core to slip out. Wind approximately turns of No. Scrape some enamel from the new secondary wires and solder insulated leads to them, tf desired, seal the windings with coil dope. In the prototype, the transformer was mounted on the heat sink over Q2 , as shown in Fig. Then plug the power cord from the enlarger into power socket SO 7.

How pocket calculators grew up A couple of years ago, calculators took a step forward. Programmability transformed the slick slide-rule calculator into an advanced scientific machine. Sadly, it also transformed a cheap little calculating aid into a piece of capital investment. Yet there is absolutely no compromise in the package of functions it offers. The Cambridge Programmable has a step program memory, and features conditional and unconditional branch instructions go to and go if negative.

There is also a step facility, which allows you to step through the program to check that it has been entered correctly. If there is any programming error, the learn key allows you to correct single steps without destroying any of the remainder of the program. The check symbol forE, for example, is F.

Using these standard programs, the Cambridge Programmable solves problems from quadratic equations where the program gives both real and imaginary roots to twin-T filter design, and from linear regression to bond yields. It even plays a lunar landing game!

To realise the full power of the Cambridge Programmable, the Program Library is a must. You need to see it and handle it Post your order today. Tel: To: Sinclair Radionics Inc. Intended for use as sampling gates, the Schottky diode switching circuits in Fig. Schottky diode sampling switch circuits: A single; B dual; C quad. The basic sampling gate, Fig. The diode normally is reverse biased by a steady dc voltage and thus acts as an open circuit.

Naturally, the sampling pulse width must be quite narrow compared to the input signal so that the sample corresponds to a specific portion of the applied waveform. This broadband vhf amplifier circuit , using a VMP-4 FET has a reasonably flat freaquency response from 40 to over megahertz.

If it is too large, it reduces efficiency by introducing an excessive voltage drop and increasing the charging time constant. These limitations can be reduced somewhat by using a symmetrical dual diode sampling gate, as shown in Fig. Here, the diodes are arranged to form a bridge in conjunction with two fixed resistors, and f? Superior to the single diode sampling gate, the dual diode design is also relatively inefficient due to the voltage drops across the bridge resistors.

The most efficient design as well as the most common in commercial equipment is one using four diodes arranged in a full-wave bridge, as illustrated in Fig. The value of the reverse bias voltage is somewhat critical in that it must be large enough to prevent input signals from driving the diodes into conduction, yet small enough to permit the gating control pulses to forward bias the diodes during the sampling interval.

With power gains approach- Fig. Naturally, layout and lead dress are somewhat critical and good vhf wiring practice must be followed for optimum performance. Suitable for use either in hobbyist or commerical designs, the digital thermometer circuit in Fig. Two RA08 resistor networks are used in the circuit in addition to quarter-watt fixed resistors and small potentiometers.

Although neither parts placement nor wiring dress are critical, good layout and wiring techniques should be observed when duplicating the circuit. If desired, the LM may be used for remote sensing. Because of the inherent high gain of the Darlington units, only one other transistor, Q1, is needed to complete the design. While any standard construction technique can be used, a suitably designed etched circuit board is easiest, provided reasonable care is exercised in developing a clean layout.

Bodies are rugged polyesther, not Bakelite as in some connectors. Our solder-tail sockets have heavy square pins. No fold-over problem on insertion. Gold, wire wrap Surface Shipping Prepaid. It has all the features of a high-priced receiver and the performance too.

Phono hum and noise are —65 dB. FM sensitivity is 1. Like all Heathkit products, assembly is quick and easy. The GD is not a toy but a sophisticated pinball game that will give you years of fun and action. Just preset your cruise speed and the CS does the rest electronically. The digital readout may be mounted on the wall or just about anywhere. Color-coded keys and coordinated music make learning to play a breeze.

This super-accurate timepiece has an attractive blue four-digit display that dims automatically according to ambient light. Destined to be the industry leaders, Heathkit computer products are the total system designs that excell in home, hobby, business and educational applications.

Powerful software gets them up and running fast. Benton Harbor, Michigan. Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. Electronic kits for everyone. Heath Company, Dept. After checkout, the center voltage at test point A is set by adjusting potentiometer R4.

If desired, the basic design can be modified to provide output powers of up to 60 watts by using different output Darlingtons. The readily available timer is among the most versatile of the special-purpose integrated circuits.

The digital thermometer circuit discussed earlier Fig. As an example, the dual-purpose timer circuit shown in Fig. Contributed by reader A. Goldsworthy 14 Edgemont Rd. F, 50 -jjlF, -p. F, or even larger capacitor. Dual-purpose timer has preset interval.

Submitted by Richard C. Gribble East First St. Light from the main flash striking phototransistor Q1 delivers a pulse to op amp IC1. Amplified by IC1 , this pulse is used to trigger the timer, IC2. Although Richard assembled his original models on perf board, other construction techniques can be used for duplicating the circuit provided all dc polarities are observed and professional assembly and wiring procedures are followed. With the parts values indicated, the time delay can be adjusted from approximately 1 millisecond to 1.

With an eye on the booming home security market, Siliconix, Inc. The SM is designed primarily for operation on 9-volt dc sources while the SMI 20 is designated for operation on tovolt supplies. The new device, type F, is designed to generate all of the tones of the chromatic scale across eight octaves of the musical spectrum. Based on a primary chromatic scale, the 1C can generate each of the twelve flats, sharps and natural notes of the seven additional octaves of the primary scale.

The new unit, type FCB, is programmable for use with domestic channel CB transceivers and can furnish either serial or parallel BCD coding for channel selection, eliminating the need for a BCD-coded rotary switch. The search mode is selectable for either busy or vacant channels, while the scan mode will remain on a busy channel for three seconds before advancing to the next busy channel.

Slow up or down operates at two channels per second, increasing to six channels per second starting with the third channel. Teledyne Semiconductor Terra Bella Ave. Conversion speed is 1 to 20 ms. Reprints of selected articles and test reports are now available in the event that you missed some you would like to have for reference or study purposes—or for projects you wish to build.

How To Select A Microcomputer 8. Low Cost Experimenter's Microcomputer 5. Read-only memories ROM's are those from which data is normally only retrieved. ROM's are factory programmed with fixed data which cannot be changed.

The stored data can be arranged as hundreds or even thousands of bits or combinations of bits called words. Words comprising four bits nibbles or erght bits bytes are the most common, but many other word lengths are also used. The absence of a diode at an intersection yields a logic 0. You can use a simple diode PROM to simulate logic gates and combinational logic networks. The first step in design- the truth table for the gate you want to simulate. The truth table for a two-input NAND gate, for example, is inputs A B 0 1 0 1 Output 1 1 1 0 This truth table has four possible input combinations and only one output for each set of inputs.

Logic Ts can be represented simply by connecting the appropriate input lines to the output line. However, diodes are essential when the PROM becomes more sophisticated. For example, Fig. Diodes eliminate sneak paths because they pass current in only one direction. It allows you to generate up to ten characters including the digits 0 through 9, many letters of the alphabet, and a variety of unusual s ymbols. No classes or seminars to attend. You study at your own pace. Each segment is presented in a way that communicates practical, usable facts.

Send for complete facts. No salesman will call. Bell e. No obligation. No sales calls. Seven-segment display character generator diode PROM. Adding a decoder to the PROM. The PROM is programmed by inserting a diode at the intersection of each character and segment line where a logic 1 exists in the truth table Fig.

Figure 7 shows how the decoder is connected to the PROM. You can assemble a working version of this diode PROM on a perforated board. The flea clips will allow you to insert and remove diodes. Turning the switch on will load a logic 1. Placing the switch in the off position will load a logic 0. O The leading magazine in the personal computer field BYTE is the magazine for the creative home computer experimenter. Home computers are now practical and affordable.

BYTE brings it all to you. Every issue filled with stimulating, timely articles by professionals, computer scientists and serious amateurs. Fill in the coupon today. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for processing. Box Arlington, Mass. Its parabolic shape rejects extraneous light, concentrating a highly efficient end directionally selective television image that is exceptionally sharp and colorful.

It is that of the engineering technician or practical engineer. The engineer has college training in electronics. Frequently, however, engineers are more heavily trained in the scientific principles of electronics and less in their practical application. His training usually consists of a two-year college program in electronic engineering technology.

He often has the title of engineer. CREI programs are, in fact, more extensive than you will find in many colleges. And CREI gives you the opportunity to specialize in your choice of the major fields of electronics. It is a complete college Lab and, we believe better than you will find in most colleges. This also means you can apply your CREI training in your work and get practical experience to qualify for career advancement.

You can select exactly the area of electronics best for your career field. So we invite you to send for our free catalog if you are qualified to take a CREI program. Program arrangements are available depending upon whether you have extensive or minimum experience in electronics. The Handbook not only lists the addresses of shortwave broadcasters, but also contains data on station power, antennas, etc.

Where can I buy the lettering that is often used on the projects in your magazine? A, A fifth-order, high-pass filter rs shown in the figure. It has a cutoff frequency of 25 Hz and a rolloff of 30 dB! I hope that's steep enough for your application.

Can you recommend a filter that l can use to block the signal? First, try powering your transceiver from a volt battery. If the noise is no longer present which I doubt , it is reaching the transceiver via the ac line. Miller, Cornel! Dubilter, etc. The way to cure this problem is to sniff out the source of the radiation, which can be anything from a brush-type motor to an aquarium heater thermostat. Use the CB transceiver or a smalt AM radio to locate the source. Sometimes, noise is generated by a component in the power line itself—a leaky insulator, intermittent contact, or loose hardware.

Noise sources can be hard to locate, because the noise can travel along the line for some distance. This type of interference can be continuous or intermittent, sometimes linked to the weather. Send it to the Hobby Scene Editor, popular electronics. One Park Ave. New York. Its channel coverage is obtained from the now- familiar phase-locked-loop PLL digital frequency-synthesis system. Technical Details. A transistor r-f stage is followed by a FET mixer in which the CB signal is heterodyned with the PLL's voltage-con- trolled oscillator vco and the difference frequencies produce a 7,8-MHz i-f.

AM selectivity and sideband selection are obtained with a crystal filler. It is switched on and off simultaneously with the audio anl. On transmit, the output of the vco is diff ere nee-mixed at a transmitter mixer with the nominal 7. The output of the vco and the 7. A muttisectlon output filter with a TV! It also provides matching to ohm loads. The customary collector-modulation of the driver and power-amplifier stages is engaged for AM.

On SSB, all r-f stages function as linear amplifiers, Amc Is provided by an age circuit around an 1C microphone preamplifier plus a low- level clipper that has a fow-pass audio filter at its output to minimize distortion and other products outside the audio passband, Ate is used on SSB.

It was at least 0. Image and i-f rejection were 80 dB minimum. Other unwanted-signal and adjacent-channel rejection and de- sensitization were 65 dB, The squelch threshold range was 0,3 to pV. The maximum SSB output power measured Unwanted-sideband suppression was greater than 60 dB at Hz and was the same on receive.

Carrier suppression was nominally 55 dB. If you like lots of shiny chrome, the Model TRC has it. The case is black but the front panel is chrome and simulated wood with chrome knobs. The channel selector knob has a bar grip.

The other rotary controls including the LED dim control, which is concentric with the squelch control are small and arranged in a row along the lower half of the front panel. The squelch control extends beyond the other knobs for easy location while driving.

An overhanging upper section of the front panel can obscure the control legends when the transceiver is installed well below eye level. The edgewise meter is illuminated in white on receive and in red on transmit. In our noisy test vehicle during SSB operation, however, we noted that ignition spikes from our car with the blanker switched on were not altogether eliminated—though diminished.

In any case, noise interference did not reach bothersome levels. It exhibited clean, crisp audio on both receive and transmit. The SSB function will permit users to reach extra miles of communication. A LMOST every computer hobbyist dreams of owning a mass-storage facility with high access speed, such as the floppy disk systems used by the big guys.

Unfortunately, the expense of a floppy disk system was prohibitively high at one time. Alternatively, you can? General Details. The effect produced by a small unbalance may be Figure 3. We must remember that sole role is played by the output impedances of the sources V i1 e Vi2, that add up to Ri1 and Ri2, respectively.

Inverting summer We may easily add voltages by means of the circuit shown in Figure 3. Non-inverting summer In the non-inverting configuration as in Figure 3. In other word the output voltage is a linear combination of the input voltages. If the resistors R In Figure 3. So the output voltage in the circuit of Figure 3.

This particular choice for R is explained by the fact that it balances the input impedances of inverting and non-inverting inputs. In previous circuits, the feedback is fed to the inverting terminal negative feedback , i. Let us begin with the inverting amplifier circuit. We apply the superposition principle to calculate, at the inverting input, the separate contributions of the two sources Vi and Vo, that we rename V1i and V1o.

And substituting these values V1 and V2 into relation [3. Comparing [3. Differential with variable-gain To change the gain of the differential amplifier of Figure 3. Differential with linear variable-gain In the previous example the gain is a non-linear function of R. Using two OA we may obtain a linear adjustment of the differential gain. Hereafter we describe three possible configurations. The circuit of Figure 4. Note that two pair of resistors Ro and R1 need to me matched.

A similar configuration is show in Figure 4. Also here a resistor R' should limit the value of G2 to avoid saturation of OA2. Also here two pair of resistors Ro and R1 need to me matched. In the third configuration figure 4. Differential amplifier with variable —gain and high Zin In the basic differential amplifier of Figure 3. If the sources feeding the inputs of the basic differential amplifier have large output impedances Zout1,2 in relation [3.

This will affect mainly the value of Gcm. To avoid this inconvenience we may use the circuit shown in Figure 4. Note that also here we must obviously set a lower limit to x. Relation [4. Instrumentation amplifier A frequently used circuit, shown in Figure 4. Resistor R in both cases loads the source Vi. Reference voltage sources A Voltage Reference VR is a source that generates voltage that does not depend on the output current, on temperature and on time it approximate the ideal voltage source.

It must have, therefore, a negligible output impedance and high temperature and time stability. A battery followed by an OA, as shown in Figure 5. In the circuit of Figure 5. Battery may be replaced by a Zener diode22 as in the circuit of Figure 5. Voltage sources with zener in the feedback Because Vz depends slightly on the zener bias current Iz, it may be affected by changes in the supply voltage; to avoid this problem we may use the circuit of Figure 5. Here it is enough to know that above a threshold value of the inverse bias current, the voltage Vz across a zener diode depends weakly on the current.

The value of Vz named zener knee voltage depends on the type of zener. R1 Vz A similar circuit is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. Here the zener is biased through the diode D and resistors R1 , R3 ; note that the cathode of D is connected by R3 to —Vcc in order to correctly startup the system. This means that the current fed to the resistor must be independent on the resistor value.

This chapter illustrates some examples of circuits named voltage to current converters, or voltage-controlled current sources, that supply currents independent of the load24 whose value may be controlled by a voltage source. Floating load If the load can be floating i. Here the load RL is inserted into the feedback loop.

In the circuit 6. Special models can provide currents up to some A e. MP38 An alternative is to use a power output buffer made by discrete components transistor : see Appendix A. Special o o cc cc OA may provide larger output swing e. Floating power supply If the OA may be powered by batteries, we may use the circuit shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Loaded ground with floating control voltage If a floating control voltage is available as a battery for d. Both circuits may use an OA with unipolar power supply. Voltage-controlled current source with all signals referred to ground When full reference to ground is required we may use the current source shown in Figure 6.

We must find the relation between VL and Vi. To maximize IL we must minimize R3. Voltage-controlled current source with two OA A circuit, similar to the previous one, but with high input impedance is shown in Figure 6. The capacitor is also here useful to avoid self-oscillations when load is removed. The voltage V1 is the Figure 6.

Because the value of R5 is arbitrary, we may control the value of IL by adjusting R5 using a potentiometer instead of adjusting Vi. In this circuit we need to trim the value of a single resistor e. R4, once R1, R2 e R3 have been chosen. Current source with potentiometric control All the previous voltage-to current converters may become current sources controlled by a potentiometer by simply using for the input voltage Vi the output voltage of a variable reference voltage source circuits 5.

Non linear circuits In the previous chapters were described several circuits essentially made of AO and resistors, where the current and voltage signals are processed linearly. By introducing non-linear elements, as diodes, we may obtain many different non-linear devices.

In this chapter we analyze some examples of rectifiers, peak detectors, and basic logarithmic and exponential amplifiers. Half-wave rectifier The rectifier is a device that passes positive signals and blocks negative signals. The diode, by itself is a basic half-wave rectifier, because it approximates an unipolar switch, i. In Figure 7. Figure 7.

The circuit of Figure 7. To understand it we first neglect the diode D2. But the diode D1, forward-biased, feeds the positive voltage to the inverting input through Ro. The negative feedback blocks V2 at the value ———— 26 For more details on the diode see appendix A. The effective error may be calculated by taking into account the real finite value of the open-loop gain A.

To avoid possible latch-up, i. This problem is avoided by the inverting half-wave rectifier shown in Figure 7. One example is shown in the circuits of Figure 7. Diode D1 switches-on for positive input and diode D2 for negative input. Here OA1 is the inverting half-wave rectifier described in Figure 7. An alternative full-wave rectifier with high input impedance is shown in Figure 7. A simple variant of the previous circuit is shown in Figure 7. Another example of full-wave rectifier with high input impedance is shown in Figure 7.

Peak detector An half-wave rectifier loaded by a capacitor becomes a peak detector for positive input voltages. An example is given in Figure 7. There is no more voltage drop across D1 and the reverse current vanishes, so that the capacitor holds its charge if we still neglect the bias input current of OA1. The reverse current of D2 is supplied by OA2 through R. A negative peak detector is obtained by reversing the two diodes: the output voltage keeps the minimum values assumed by negative input.

This circuit may be improved by adding a second feedback R2 in Figure 7. Logarithmic and exponential amplifiers Logarithmic and exponential amplifiers allow multiplication and division of analogic signals, and they could be used to build analogic computers.

Their more common application, however is for signal compressing or expanding, in order to change the reading scale. For analog multiplication and division the most used devices are the transconductance IC Her we give only a brief analysis of the working principle of logarithmic and exponential amplifiers in basic examples.

To understand the behavior of the following circuits we must refine the approximation of the diode used until now the unipolar switch model , adopting the ideal diode model Logarithmic amplifier By replacing the feedback resistor with a diode in an inverting amplifier, as in Figure 7. Clayton, chapt. Wait et al. For an extended range we may use a transistor connected as a diode , i. Another configuration, also named transdiode29, is shown in Figure 7.

Here the collector and base electrodes of the transistor are kept at the same voltage through the negative feedback collector at virtual-ground so that the effective behavior is the same of ideal diode. In the circuit of Figure 7.

A more complete analysis should account for the bias currents Ib of the OA. Exponential amplifier I1 R1 An exponential amplifier can be obtained from the Id circuit of Figure 7. Using the ideal OA model, and for input voltages Figure 7. Young, chapt. Active filters In this chapter we analyze filters, i. The transfer function is the ratio between the output signal and the input signal A filter modifies both the amplitude and the phase of sinusoidal signals: in mathematical language, we may say that the transfer function of a filter is a complex function In a low-pass filter, for example, the low frequency signals remain unchanged while high frequency signals are attenuated.

In the literature we may find many recipes for designing filters with any transfer function Butterworth filters, Tchebeyscheff filters, Bessel filters. In this chapter we analyze the active filters most frequently used: first order filters, multiple- feedback filters, VCVS filters, state-variable filters, and filters using impedance converters NIC, gyrators. The multiple-feedback filters, and VCVS filters Voltage Controlled Voltage Source here described will be those of order 2: higher order filters are generally obtained by cascading filters of this type.

The state-variable filters use the technique of analog calculators and are made of active integrators and summers. Active Integrator By replacing the feedback resistor Ro in the inverting amplifier of Figure 3. In Figure 8. For a. From now-on ———— 33 The complex impedance id described in more details in Appendix B. For d.

The integrator is therefore a low-pass filter of order 1 the transfer function has one pole, i. Differentiator By replacing the input resistor Ri in the inverting amplifier of Figure 3. Figure 8. This enhances the high frequency noise , making this circuit not practically usable. A substantial improvement is obtained by adding an input resistor Ri as in Figure 8. The differentiator is a high-pass filter of order 1. Multiple feedback filters Multiple feedback filters of second order are made by one OA ad a passive network with impedances Zi R and C in the general layout of Figure 8.

We will analyze the three main cases: low-pass filter, high-pass filter and band-pass filter. Low-pass filter If in the circuit of Figure 8. The high-pass filter If in the circuit of Figure 8. The band-pass filter If in the circuit of Figure 8. Quality factor and damping factor The meaning of the damping factor 1 is explained by the graphs of Figure 8.

This shows that a peak appears only for! The peak-amplitude is A! The peak disappears in the Butterworth type filter where! In fact the equation A! In the Bode plot figure 8. VA VA! Vo VA! Key The state-variable filters The state-variable active filters are made of two cascaded inverting integrators plus a summer that adds the outputs of the two integrators figure 8. Note that the state-variable filters are devices that may be used as analogic computers to solve differential equations.

For example in Figure 8. This result is general: for any linear differential equation we may find a circuit, made of integrators and summers, which gives the solving function.. A simple notch filter A notch filter may also be made of a single AO, as shown in Figure 8.

This circuit may be seen as a modification of that shown in figure 8. Note that in this circuit the values of capacitors and resistors are not arbitrary! The transfer function may be calculated by Figure 8. An example is the circuit of Figure 8.

This circuit is equivalent to an inductance whose value may be made quite large, useful for obtaining low- pass LC filters with very low cut frequency Circuits 8. Capacitance multiplier The circuit shown in Figure 8.

IC active filters The state-variable filters may be easily obtained using commercially available as IC. With AF we need only four resistors to get a triple filter. With three more resistors and using the fourth AO of AF we may build the notch filter of figure 8.

Switching circuits When the OA has no negative feedback, or it has a large positive feedback, a small noise voltage at the input e. Not all the commercial OA may be used for this purpose: many models suffer of latch-up, i. Therefore, when designing a switching circuit we must select special OA with rail-to-rail output, that do not suffer latch-up, named Schmitt triggers or Comparators.

Some comparator are available with open-collector 40, a configuration that allows to select for saturation voltage Vo values different from the power supply voltages. Comparator Let us first analyze an OA without negative feedback. We immediately see that it works as a threshold detector.

Comparator with hysteresis The comparator instability around VR may be avoided, by introducing an hysteresis through a positive feedback. In this case the response, within a small range around VR, will depend on the values previously assumed by the input Vi.

The single threshold value will be replaced by two threshold values: a lower one, that will switch the output for increasing input voltages, and a higher one , that will switch the output for decreasing input voltages. Therefore small oscillations of the input voltage Vi nearby each threshold value will not toggle the output more than once. The larger is V, named hysteresis width, the smaller is the comparator sensitivity. The hysteresis width 2 Vcc replaces the linear region.

The non-inverting comparator with hysteresis Figure 9. Bipolar astable multivibrator If we replace the input signal of an inverting comparator by a complex RC negative feedback, we obtain an astable monovibrator, a type of relaxation oscillator The square-wave symmetry i. In case of non-symmetrical power supply we may add a double zener in parallel to the output load and a resistor Ro, as shown in Figure 9.

C R Figure 9. Figure 9. The same circuit, with power supply 0, —Vcc gives negative pulses. Self-oscillation Self-oscillation in OA is a spontaneous oscillation of the output voltage in the absence of input signal: it may occur when there is a positive feedback.

Such positive feedback may also be non-intentional: it may be the result of capacitive coupling between output and input or it may be due to a ground-loop42 in the power supply circuitry; in these cases the oscillation is undesired, not controlled and it produces instability of the signals.

If we properly adjust the positive feedback, however, we may obtain stable and controllable oscillation: Wien-bridge sinusoidal oscillator A simple example of sinusoidal oscillator, named Wien-bridge A Ro oscillator, is shown in Figure We are free in setting the values in the feedback network, provided that we satisfy the conditions [ A similar circuit may be obtained by replacing the capacitors in Figure Therefore a stable oscillator normally requires an automatic gain stabilization note that the amplitude of the voltage oscillation does not enter explicitly into the equations we used above.

Figure Another Wien-bridge oscillator circuit is shown in Figure Here the automatic gain control is R1 Ro R provided by the non-linear behavior of the diodes Rf placed in parallel to Rf. Two examples are shown in Figure We analyze both , redrawing the circuit in the general layout of Figure Double shifter oscillator In Figure The other two OA may be seen as the feedback network made by two phase cascaded shifters. The automatic gain control may be achieved by a double diode in parallel to Ro'.

Phase shifter oscillator Figure One should choose Ro slightly larger than12 R to start oscillation: the two diodes shown in Figure The circuit of Figure An improved version of this circuit is shown in Figure The frequency is set by the potentiometer RF, the amplitude by the potentiometer RG. An equivalent circuit is drawn in Figure Voltage to frequency converter Frequency may be modulated by a voltage using a voltage-to-frequency converter as that shown in Figure Here the output signal V3 is made of pulses repeating at the frequency f, proportional to the input voltage Vi.

The circuit is made by an inverting integrator OA1 and by a non-inverting comparator OA2 with hysteresis and zero reference Figure The equation [ Frequency-to-voltage converter The inverse process, i. To have a frequency meter with positive output we simply revere the polarity of both D1 and D2 diodes. Phase sensitive detector lock-in The lock-in amplifier is a device that is frequently used to extract weak signals from background noise. Noise sources may be electromagnetic fields due to line power supply or radio-frequency broadcasting, but also acoustical pick-up, thermal noise, shot noise or flicker noise The line-noise, due to poor shielding or to ground-loops, has Fourier-components at the line- frequency 50Hz or 60 Hz, and multiples.

An alternative solution is to lock the filter central frequency to the signal frequency: this is the lock-in amplifier technique. A lock-in amplifier needs a reference signal VR that is synchronous with the signal to be detected VS; such signal may be found more easily than it could appear at first sight: quite often in fact the weak signal to be extracted from background noise is produced as response to an excitation signal that will be available as reference signal.

In case of d. The lock-in output is not sinusoidal signal as for tuned band-pass filters output but a d. The main advantage of the lock-in is the very high Q-values of the order of even at very low frequencies, where traditional tuned band-pass filters become very expensive. Delaney, chapt We here only recall that thermal noise is due to the brownian motion of electrons, shot noise is due to the statistical fluctuations of the number of discrete charges flowing in a time unit, while flicker noise may be produced by various different processes.

The switch is controlled by the reference signal VR synchronous with VS, so that it is passing the signal during the positive half-wave of VS and it shorts to ground the filter input during the negative half-wave of VS. This is substantially an half-wave chopper. If we set a phase lag between VR and VS, i. An example is shown in figure Lock-in with multiplier A different lock-in structure is shown in figure The output signal V1 , has two components , with frequencies that are the sum and the difference, respectively, of the two frequencies of input signals.

Here the output has a d. A reliable measurement of the detected signal amplitude therefore requires not only a stable phase shift but also a stable amplitude for the reference signal. The transfer function of this lock-in has the spectrum shown in figure We may analyze again the circuit of figure St sin! St sin 3! We note that if the noise VN includes a d. The lock-in with 0,1 multiplier may be seen as a parallel of infinite numbers of lock-ins with sinusoidal multiplier and with reference signals made by odd harmonics of the signal to be detected.

However it is easier to stabilize the amplitude of a square wave than the amplitude of a sinusoid. The analysis of the behavior of this circuit is the same as that made for circuit of figure In Figure A simpler version of circuit To improve the approximations we may use two analog switches, as shown in Figure The single channel chopper shown in figure Here the quad analog switch is driven in phase opposition by the two comparators so that the input signal VS is alternately fed to the differential amplifiers inputs every half-period.

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So are stereo systems.

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Berdych vs ferrer betting expert boxing This may not be such a good idea. Tip care: Use tip tinner to protect your tips from oxidation. Most of the light switches in your house are like this. But when an electron moves through a wire, you can still think of an equal positive charge flowing in the opposite direction. See Figureshown previously. An assortment of electrolytic capacitors. Today, switching is mostly done with semiconductors.
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