Between a rock and a hard place lyrics 5sos 18

Published в Can slim investing reviews for horrible bosses | Октябрь 2, 2012

between a rock and a hard place lyrics 5sos 18

The Space Between A Rock And A Hard Place Chords · Wasted, I play the same part where I'm chasing your sick little heart · 'Til I'm jaded and lying on the floor. 5SOS Lyrics As requested, I have created a page to bring you all the 5SOS Original song lyrics:) The Space Between A Rock And A Hard Place (Catch 22). "The Space Between A Rock And A Hard Place", also known as "Catch 22" is a song written by 5 Seconds of Summer for the Target exclusive of. BLANQUEO DE BITCOINS MINING

Those 3 months seemed so long for all the fans, who have been waiting for a new album since 5SOS just had released their first one self-titled 5 Seconds of Summer. All I can say is the wait was worth it. I suggest you put on your earphones and close your eyes while listening to each song closely and peacefully. It has a groovy rythm making you wanna dance and jump around.

This song really introduce you to the New Broken Scene. According to Zakk Cervini, the drums and guitars are unique on this track, which I agree with. You also want to bang your head through the whole chorus. A pretty original song, it even plays on the radio all over the world!

Hey Everybody! However, it just goes on with the idea of the first tracks, a song with a pop punk attitude making you want to dance and jump. Another amazing song to play live. The moment they sing the chorus with just the same guitar riff playing in the back gives you chills and some kind of confidence, bringing you to the New Broken Scene.

The lyrics are a new topic 5SOS never really talked about, money. Basically, never give up and work your way out of it. Keep on dreaming! Permanent Vacation One of my favourite song on the album. It still goes on with the New Broken Scene. Again, this song has pop punk vibes, making you want to rock out to it.

This song makes you proud to be part of this whole new broken scene. They all died inside, not only because of the deep lyrics and the improvement they saw in this track, but also because of Michael who literally owns this song. The depth of this song and the emotions Luke, Ashton, Calum and Michael put in it make it one of their all time best song. Catch Fire Alex Gaskarth, a talented singer and writer from the band known as All Time Low, helped on writing this song. This one is more peaceful and has more of a pop sound.

When I catch fire and wash over you like the sun. I will fight to fix up and get things right. The lyrics make you think of a revolution, going along with the New Broken Scene. Waste the Night Such a different song. It might remind you a bit of the ! I hope they make more of those, it adds a little something more on the album and its originality.

Vapor Oh what to say about Vapor. The chills you get when listening to it are heaven. The repetitions in the verses give something more to the impact of the lyrics. It gives a different sound in the song and makes it better. The drums are what brings everything to it, such a great song.

Once again, 5SOS impress us with deep lyrics. One of the slow songs on the album, the emotion is strong. And a fun fact, the drum sound has been made with the help of a playground set. We can agree this was a pretty great idea! I left them on the counter of the recording booth, I think you might like them. Have fun with the boys, Luke!

Michael was the first one to welcome him without any kind of hostility. They bonded over their favorite games and even exchanged handles so they can play together someday. But save me a game, yes? It was true that he had an idea, but it was not as urgent as he made it seem. Michael just shrugged. Have you seen him by any chance? The four of them became very good friends, hanging out from time to time, bonding over music, games, and inside jokes from their home country.

Ashton was the last one to warm up to Luke. But, just like Michael and Calum, he soon found a brother within Luke and now they were a dynamic duo when it came to writing. They worked amazingly together, their writing style and aesthetic being very similar made them fly over a thousand songs in a short period of time.

And his suspicion was confirmed once he opened the door and found Ashton laying down on the small sofa with a bunch of sheets of paper in his hand. But then, how could I blame her if I was the one who was never here? That broke me, man. I spiraled, jumped from relationship to relationship, searching for someone that would stay but they never did. Then the one-night stands and the endless party scene… I was not myself anymore.

We fought out demons and came back stronger than ever. A couple of months later I met Danielle and she changed my life for the better. You said that you never got your heart broken. No matter how many poems or songs you write about it. What was he trying to say? Was he warning him or just advised him?

In the end, he said nothing. It was his own desperation intertwined with his feelings of hope. It was his own question; the one he might never get to ask. Ashton wasted no time as he jumped out of his seat, writing every single word to it before one of them forgets. They spent hours and hours rewriting, playing the chords, and navigating their feelings alone in the small room. Neither of them asked what the lyrics meant to them beyond what was explicit, neither of them had to.

It seemed like the same story from other perspectives; the one who stayed versus the one who had to move on, ending in heartbreak for both of them. Luke kept repeating the question over and over again. Or to push them away and accept the fact that she means nothing but friendship and be content with that? Could you tell me why I hold on to you and you hold on to me? He knew that this was the first time the man has actually written upon feeling rather than the thought of it when it came to love.

And he thought that maybe he rushed himself by assuming he never felt heartbreak before if the words he wrote were proof enough of his desperate heart. He also knew who these words were for without needing to ask. But she never gave an answer that could bring any satisfaction to the query. It was hard for her, probably more than they will ever know.

She cares for her heart the same way a little kid cares for their favorite toy. Anyone would jump at the opportunity to be with someone like her and you, a person who knows her in a more personal way, are waiting on the sidelines to see if she would make the first move.

Should I remind you that she already did by inviting you against our will? Not like you, at least. I always end up finding out stuff about her from other people, stuff that seems, at the very least, normal for people to share. The ball is in your court, my friend. If he ever offended her in any way or if he overstepped without realizing. But why? Lord knows that she was Luke wrapped around her finger like some spell she cast upon him the day she accidentally threw her coffee on him.

From the moment he saw her, Luke knew he was screwed and that terrified him. Was she scared, too? Suddenly, Luke felt an ounce of shame dawn upon him. There he goes again, trying to decipher her feelings without asking her or even acknowledging his own. She was not keeping him on his toes all the time. It was him. How to break the cycle of endless wondering for him to start to act up?

His fingers slipped on the guitar and created an awful sound that woke him up from his spiraling mind. She was smiling at Luke, amused at seeing him so concentrated on the guitar until his fingers slipped. She always did that. Never going too deep when talking about her. Unless it was about the band or something completely random like the meaning of life, she would always drive the conversation away from her.

The one I wrote yesterday? Her side was pressed to his as she grabbed the guitar from him and placed it correctly on his lap. She took his hand on hers, her soft palm contrasting with his calloused touch. Her fingers were placed above his, moving them to the right chords as she guided him with the strumming pattern.

You got it! They were both very aware of their proximity, each of them hoping that the beating of their heart was not noticeable over the notes played on the guitar, but at the same time content with what was happening. Once he got the hang of it, Luke started humming the melody of the song along with the guitar. Wishing she could. Feelings were messy, confusing, and scary.

They got her in trouble in more ways than one, with her always ending up losing. She hurt and has been hurt by people before. But as she concentrated her eyes on Luke she wondered if it was all worth it in the end. Scared to not know the answer. His heart almost bursting out of his chest by this simple action. Now, they found themselves face to face.

Cheeks tinted pink as she felt his breath above her lips, so close to the touch but at the same time not close enough. Luke, on his part, felt his throat dry the second her eyes flicked from his eyes to his lips, feeling like they will never have a moment like this again.

Between a rock and a hard place lyrics 5sos 18 cryptocurrency under 01 between a rock and a hard place lyrics 5sos 18

FOREX GADGET

Findings: An analysis of the respondents' reasons for considering freebirth was conducted, finding that reasons for considering freebirth were complex and multifaceted. Conclusions: Considering giving birth without a healthcare professional present is unusual in the Global North and represents an emerging field of study. The literature examining the reasons that people consider freebirth shows a variety of underlying motivations.

A global pandemic represents a new factor in such considerations. The findings from this research can help inform maternity service planning in future crises. Introduction The global coronavirus Covid pandemic concerns all people but has a specific effect on those who are expecting a baby during this time. Perinatal care, like emergency medical care, is time-sensitive, and cannot be delayed and then accessed later.

In the first days of the lockdown in the UK, rapid response research was planned to understand the real-time social and cultural impact on the lived experience of people accessing maternity care in the UK.

Our research question was: What are the experiences of perinatal care of those who are due to have a baby in the first months of lockdown in the UK, and how do they feel about these experiences? Our article is drawn from this wider research project, which used an online survey of parents.

The survey comprised of three main elements: capture of demographic information; a psychometric tool that was administered to those who had given birth; and a series of open-ended questions. The survey opened on 10th April and closed on 24th April One of the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions was that 72 respondents had given serious consideration to freebirthing. This paper specifically discusses the experiences of those respondents, examining both why they considered this option, and their feelings about freebirth.

The subject is under-researched and there is a paucity of academic literature on the phenomenon. Such studies highlight that women decide to freebirth for a range of reasons. These include a previous traumatic birth 6 , dissatisfaction with the care offered by perinatal services 7 , and an inherent belief in the undisturbed physiological processes of birth 3.

Freebirth and the Covid Pandemic In the first weeks of lockdown in the UK, the advice for expectant parents changed rapidly. On the 9th March the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists RCOG issued guidance suggesting pregnant women were not at greater risk from coronavirus that the general population. However, a week later, the UK Government guidance stated pregnant women were one of the most vulnerable groups.

Despite the proven safety of out of hospital settings for low-risk births 11 , 12 , in the first days of lockdown individual NHS Trusts released different guidance relating to the withdrawal of homebirth services, and the closure of birth centers and midwife-led units MLUs.

Restrictions were also placed on the number of birth partners—if any—allowed during labor, and whether any visitors and who they were were allowed to visit after birth. The uncertainty and confusion around this advice meant that pregnant people became concerned as to how these restrictions would impact their rights and experiences during labor and birth.

As a result, national human rights charities such as the Association for Improvements in the Maternity Services AIMS and Birthrights, published a range of literature to support people impacted by these restrictions [e. Further, it became apparent to midwives that some women were contemplating removing themselves entirely from NHS perinatal care and freebirthing their babies.

Concerned by this, on 30th April the Royal College of Midwives RCM issued a clinical guidance note for midwives advising on how to support women intending to freebirth Quantitative data about freebirth is almost non-existent. It is unknown, for example, how many people per year freebirth their babies in the UK.

Demographics relating to freebirthers' socio-economic background, ethnicity, age, and parity do not exist. In short, within the UK context, there has never been a quantitative study undertaken that attempts to collect such data. Given this lack of statistical data relating to freebirth, the rates of increased interest in freebirthing due to the COVID pandemic remain unclear. However, communities such as the Freebirth and Emergency Childbirth Support Group—a UK fee-based Facebook group—have been created on social media during the pandemic.

This group provided information to almost expectant parents, healthcare professionals and birth supporters. The emergence of groups such as this during lockdown suggests a genuine interest from a range of people in learning more about freebirth. Methods Data Collection An online survey was undertaken to capture the experiences of those in the UK who had given birth, or were due to give birth, between the 9th March and the 3rd July , or whose partners had given birth or were due to give birth between these dates.

The dates chosen ensured participants had either recently become parents or were in the third trimester of pregnancy at the time of the research. The survey collected demographic data, used a psychometric tool to measure support in labor and birth, and included a large number of open-ended questions about respondents' experiences.

Participants were asked to indicate whether they or their partner was pregnant, their baby's date of birth or due date and their local healthcare service trust. Participants were also asked to indicate their ethnicity, age, disability, sexual orientation, and gender. The main part of the survey consisted of free text boxes which asked when participants became aware of Covid, and when they understood that it might impact their pregnancy and birth plans. It also asked about their plans for birth and whether they had changed, whether they were accessing private healthcare providers, whether other elements of perinatal care had changed, and how they felt about becoming a parent during a pandemic.

A psychometric scale for those who had given birth was also included, but the results are not discussed in detail here. The questionnaire tool is attached at Supplementary Table 1. The survey was promoted and carried out entirely online due to the practicalities of the pandemic, and also to allow as many people to respond as possible.

An advert with a hyperlink to the survey was shared on Twitter from both the first author's personal account and a King's College account. Two human rights charities, Birthrights and the Association for Improvements in Maternity Services AIMS were involved in helping design the survey, and in promoting it through their online social media.

The questionnaire was open from 10th to 24th April , and 1, responses were received. Case Selection This article reports in detail on the responses that related to freebirth. The mention of fear related to giving birth alone may refer to freebirthing, but is more likely to refer to giving birth without a partner, a situation many respondents were unhappy with.

Responses which included these terms were then read in full by the lead researcher MG , and included in the freebirth dataset if they indicated that the participant or their partner had considered freebirth at any point, or if they had had a freebirth. This resulted in responses from 72 people who had considered or had a freebirth being included in the dataset.

The full responses excluding the psychometric scale from these participants were then uploaded into NVivo. Two responses which mentioned freebirth were excluded from the analysis as these responses mentioned that the participants were too scared to consider freebirth, or that they were concerned other women might choose to freebirth. A second check of the full database was conducted by the second researcher SPG to ensure that all cases had been correctly identified.

Analysis The demographic data from the full dataset were compiled so as to compare with those considering freebirth. The dataset of 72 responses was then thematically analyzed using NVivo. Thematic analysis is a methodology often used within qualitative research in the social sciences, because it can generate rich detail from the data, whilst also providing an overall organizational structure to compare and discuss the data within.

As the aim of this research was to capture the real-time lived experiences of expectant parents during lockdown, we wanted to employ an analytical methodology that would provide a rich description of the dataset rather than a theoretically driven methodology. Six stages of analytic process are described by Braun and Clarke 16 as part of a robust thematic analysis process. These are: familiarization, initial coding, searching for themes, reviewing themes, naming and describing themes, and producing a report.

Reading and re-reading the responses which mentioned freebirth to determine whether they should be included in the analysis provided the necessary familiarization for the researchers. The dataset was then transferred to NVivo, and the lead researcher used an inductive approach to generate initial codes from the open-ended questions. This initial coding was organized into themes, providing a map of the data, which were reviewed by the second researcher SPG.

Each theme was then named and described, drawing on the data to ensure that participants' voices remained the center of the analysis. The themes are presented above in Table 1 , and a full codebook of the themes is available at Supplementary Table 1. The three main themes are: where birth was planned to happen before the pandemic; what non-NHS support respondents considered; and respondents' reasons for considering freebirth.

Themes identified. The findings above use the themes identified to form the structure of this article. Simple quantitative analysis was also undertaken with the freebirth dataset, firstly to produce descriptive statistics of the demographics of the participants, but also to turn qualitative answers into quantitative ones by turning open-ended answers into closed ones.

Turning qualitative data into quantitative data can be one of the purposes of qualitative research Results Quantitative Findings This section begins by identifying the demographic characteristics of the participants who had considered freebirth. We then go on to examine participants' plans for birth before the pandemic. Of the 72 participants who said they had seriously considered freebirth during the pregnancy, 69 were women who were pregnant at the time of the research.

Two participants were women who had given birth since the 9th March, and one participant was a man whose partner was pregnant. This division in the types of participant is roughly in line with the total dataset, where 1, were still pregnant at the time of the research, had given birth, and 33 were the partner of someone who was pregnant or had given birth.

The majority of participants were white, heterosexual women, as is shown in Figures 1 , 2. Sexual orientation of participants considering freebirth. Ethnicity of participants considering freebirth. The youngest woman was 19, and the oldest was The man was 42, but his partner's age is unknown. The average age was The same person who declined to indicate their ethnicity or sexuality, also declined to indicate their age. Ages of participants considering freebirth. In terms of geographic distribution, participants considering freebirth were not confined to any particular location in the UK.

Geographical distribution of participants considering freebirth. The demographic characteristics of those considering freebirth were similar to the demographic characteristics of the entire dataset, with the exception of sexual orientation. Bisexual, lesbian and pansexual respondents made up 4. Sexual minority women were therefore more likely than heterosexual participants to be considering freebirth.

Contingency table testing was used to determine if this difference was statistically significant. Although we did not collect demographic data about the profession of either the pregnant person or their partner, several respondents mentioned it within their responses to the open questions. One woman was a senior medical professional, two others work clinically within the NHS, two are non-clinical birth workers, another's partner is a GP, and one's husband is a Registered General Nurse RGN.

It is interesting both that so many people with professional experience in either birth or healthcare were considering freebirth, and that they felt it was important to provide this information in their answers. Plans Before the Pandemic Interestingly, only one person who answered the survey had been planning to freebirth before the pandemic. The other participants had a range of birth plans. Many had been intending to birth at home A significant proportion of respondents had also been considering giving birth in either a freestanding birth center, or an alongside midwife-led unit 11 , whilst two women had been intending to give birth on the labor ward, and one woman had been intending to have a planned cesarean birth.

Is [sic] any complications developed to go to [named] Hospital. Only two women had given birth before the survey, and of these, one woman had had a freebirth, whilst the other had seriously considered freebirth, but in the end had been able to obtain the midwifery care that she had been told would not be available.

In the end, though, the midwife turned up with all the gear be and was happy to stay. Birth was extremely straightforward and fast 30 min after midwife arrived. The majority of expectant parents considering freebirth during the pandemic experienced negative feelings. Positive feelings seemed to be more prevalent amongst participants who had made the decision to have a freebirth, whilst those who were still undecided did not seem to share these positive feelings. Options Considered Expectant parents in this study had a range of different first choices for birthplace, including homebirths, birth centers and MLUs, labor wards, and elective cesarean births.

When expectant parents' plans for birth changed because of lockdown, a freebirth was not always their second choice for birth either. Some women's second preference was to give birth in a different NHS setting, which they had been informed was not available to them. These are fully qualified midwives, who are registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council in the same way as NHS midwives.

Independent midwives are self-employed, whilst private midwives are employed by private companies. Four women had hired an independent midwife, at the time of the survey. However, more women commented that they were unable to hire an independent midwife. One woman had considered hiring an independent midwife before lockdown, but had spoken to their maternity services who had reassured her they would be supportive of a home vaginal birth after cesarean with the result that she decided not to hire an independent midwife.

Unfortunately, the local homebirth service had then been suspended, and the independent midwife no longer had any availability. Combined with the cancellation of NHS home births, women in my area are left with few choices of any. The majority of participants who were considering freebirth because of Covid had considered at least one other option subsequent to the changes in their original birth plans. Freebirth was therefore not a first or second choice for the majority of participants who were considering it.

Odysseus relied on his own skill to navigate his challenges, but financial advisors can get extra help today from the field of behavioral finance. Thanks to his research, we know that the human brain creates investment problems by misunderstanding how the world works. Loss aversion is one of these vulnerabilities. So, advisors are caught between their own rock and a hard place. They perceive the missed gain as a loss because their brains compare the actual investment returns with the potential gains.

These emotions are strong.

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The Rolling Stones - Between a Rock and a Hard Place (Lyrics)

Sounds Good Feels Good, the record they announced to be their second one last August.

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Between a rock and a hard place lyrics 5sos 18 Her arousal was apparent as she started to roll her hips at a deliciously slow pace, sending Luke into an overdrive of sensations, softly thrusting his hips to match her rhythm. The one I wrote yesterday? This one is more peaceful and has more of a pop sound. They got her in trouble in more ways than one, with her always ending up losing. From the beginning, she talked about friendship, then a partnership, and then… could there be any possibilities for something more? Music was her element and she thrived in it.
Horse betting statistical approach in research It gives you hope. If he ever offended her in any way or if he overstepped without realizing. Luke placed his hands behind his head and with a sigh, he pushed his chair here from his desk. Permanent Vacation One of my favourite song on the album. It still goes on with the New Broken Scene. Her fingers were placed above his, moving them to the right chords as she guided him with the strumming pattern. This song really introduce you to the New Broken Scene.
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ELIZABETH BLACKWELL BIRTHPLACE OF DEMOCRACY

Thanks to his research, we know that the human brain creates investment problems by misunderstanding how the world works. Loss aversion is one of these vulnerabilities. So, advisors are caught between their own rock and a hard place. They perceive the missed gain as a loss because their brains compare the actual investment returns with the potential gains.

These emotions are strong. Kahneman calls this behavior inappropriate extrapolation. In the first days of the lockdown in the UK, rapid response research was planned to understand the real-time social and cultural impact on the lived experience of people accessing maternity care in the UK. Our research question was: What are the experiences of perinatal care of those who are due to have a baby in the first months of lockdown in the UK, and how do they feel about these experiences?

Our article is drawn from this wider research project, which used an online survey of parents. The survey comprised of three main elements: capture of demographic information; a psychometric tool that was administered to those who had given birth; and a series of open-ended questions.

The survey opened on 10th April and closed on 24th April One of the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions was that 72 respondents had given serious consideration to freebirthing. This paper specifically discusses the experiences of those respondents, examining both why they considered this option, and their feelings about freebirth.

The subject is under-researched and there is a paucity of academic literature on the phenomenon. Such studies highlight that women decide to freebirth for a range of reasons. These include a previous traumatic birth 6 , dissatisfaction with the care offered by perinatal services 7 , and an inherent belief in the undisturbed physiological processes of birth 3. Freebirth and the Covid Pandemic In the first weeks of lockdown in the UK, the advice for expectant parents changed rapidly.

On the 9th March the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists RCOG issued guidance suggesting pregnant women were not at greater risk from coronavirus that the general population. However, a week later, the UK Government guidance stated pregnant women were one of the most vulnerable groups. Despite the proven safety of out of hospital settings for low-risk births 11 , 12 , in the first days of lockdown individual NHS Trusts released different guidance relating to the withdrawal of homebirth services, and the closure of birth centers and midwife-led units MLUs.

Restrictions were also placed on the number of birth partners—if any—allowed during labor, and whether any visitors and who they were were allowed to visit after birth. The uncertainty and confusion around this advice meant that pregnant people became concerned as to how these restrictions would impact their rights and experiences during labor and birth. As a result, national human rights charities such as the Association for Improvements in the Maternity Services AIMS and Birthrights, published a range of literature to support people impacted by these restrictions [e.

Further, it became apparent to midwives that some women were contemplating removing themselves entirely from NHS perinatal care and freebirthing their babies. Concerned by this, on 30th April the Royal College of Midwives RCM issued a clinical guidance note for midwives advising on how to support women intending to freebirth Quantitative data about freebirth is almost non-existent. It is unknown, for example, how many people per year freebirth their babies in the UK.

Demographics relating to freebirthers' socio-economic background, ethnicity, age, and parity do not exist. In short, within the UK context, there has never been a quantitative study undertaken that attempts to collect such data. Given this lack of statistical data relating to freebirth, the rates of increased interest in freebirthing due to the COVID pandemic remain unclear. However, communities such as the Freebirth and Emergency Childbirth Support Group—a UK fee-based Facebook group—have been created on social media during the pandemic.

This group provided information to almost expectant parents, healthcare professionals and birth supporters. The emergence of groups such as this during lockdown suggests a genuine interest from a range of people in learning more about freebirth. Methods Data Collection An online survey was undertaken to capture the experiences of those in the UK who had given birth, or were due to give birth, between the 9th March and the 3rd July , or whose partners had given birth or were due to give birth between these dates.

The dates chosen ensured participants had either recently become parents or were in the third trimester of pregnancy at the time of the research. The survey collected demographic data, used a psychometric tool to measure support in labor and birth, and included a large number of open-ended questions about respondents' experiences.

Participants were asked to indicate whether they or their partner was pregnant, their baby's date of birth or due date and their local healthcare service trust. Participants were also asked to indicate their ethnicity, age, disability, sexual orientation, and gender.

The main part of the survey consisted of free text boxes which asked when participants became aware of Covid, and when they understood that it might impact their pregnancy and birth plans. It also asked about their plans for birth and whether they had changed, whether they were accessing private healthcare providers, whether other elements of perinatal care had changed, and how they felt about becoming a parent during a pandemic.

A psychometric scale for those who had given birth was also included, but the results are not discussed in detail here. The questionnaire tool is attached at Supplementary Table 1. The survey was promoted and carried out entirely online due to the practicalities of the pandemic, and also to allow as many people to respond as possible. An advert with a hyperlink to the survey was shared on Twitter from both the first author's personal account and a King's College account.

Two human rights charities, Birthrights and the Association for Improvements in Maternity Services AIMS were involved in helping design the survey, and in promoting it through their online social media. The questionnaire was open from 10th to 24th April , and 1, responses were received. Case Selection This article reports in detail on the responses that related to freebirth.

The mention of fear related to giving birth alone may refer to freebirthing, but is more likely to refer to giving birth without a partner, a situation many respondents were unhappy with. Responses which included these terms were then read in full by the lead researcher MG , and included in the freebirth dataset if they indicated that the participant or their partner had considered freebirth at any point, or if they had had a freebirth.

This resulted in responses from 72 people who had considered or had a freebirth being included in the dataset. The full responses excluding the psychometric scale from these participants were then uploaded into NVivo. Two responses which mentioned freebirth were excluded from the analysis as these responses mentioned that the participants were too scared to consider freebirth, or that they were concerned other women might choose to freebirth.

A second check of the full database was conducted by the second researcher SPG to ensure that all cases had been correctly identified. Analysis The demographic data from the full dataset were compiled so as to compare with those considering freebirth. The dataset of 72 responses was then thematically analyzed using NVivo. Thematic analysis is a methodology often used within qualitative research in the social sciences, because it can generate rich detail from the data, whilst also providing an overall organizational structure to compare and discuss the data within.

As the aim of this research was to capture the real-time lived experiences of expectant parents during lockdown, we wanted to employ an analytical methodology that would provide a rich description of the dataset rather than a theoretically driven methodology. Six stages of analytic process are described by Braun and Clarke 16 as part of a robust thematic analysis process. These are: familiarization, initial coding, searching for themes, reviewing themes, naming and describing themes, and producing a report.

Reading and re-reading the responses which mentioned freebirth to determine whether they should be included in the analysis provided the necessary familiarization for the researchers. The dataset was then transferred to NVivo, and the lead researcher used an inductive approach to generate initial codes from the open-ended questions.

This initial coding was organized into themes, providing a map of the data, which were reviewed by the second researcher SPG. Each theme was then named and described, drawing on the data to ensure that participants' voices remained the center of the analysis. The themes are presented above in Table 1 , and a full codebook of the themes is available at Supplementary Table 1. The three main themes are: where birth was planned to happen before the pandemic; what non-NHS support respondents considered; and respondents' reasons for considering freebirth.

Themes identified. The findings above use the themes identified to form the structure of this article. Simple quantitative analysis was also undertaken with the freebirth dataset, firstly to produce descriptive statistics of the demographics of the participants, but also to turn qualitative answers into quantitative ones by turning open-ended answers into closed ones. Turning qualitative data into quantitative data can be one of the purposes of qualitative research Results Quantitative Findings This section begins by identifying the demographic characteristics of the participants who had considered freebirth.

We then go on to examine participants' plans for birth before the pandemic. Of the 72 participants who said they had seriously considered freebirth during the pregnancy, 69 were women who were pregnant at the time of the research.

Two participants were women who had given birth since the 9th March, and one participant was a man whose partner was pregnant. This division in the types of participant is roughly in line with the total dataset, where 1, were still pregnant at the time of the research, had given birth, and 33 were the partner of someone who was pregnant or had given birth. The majority of participants were white, heterosexual women, as is shown in Figures 1 , 2.

Sexual orientation of participants considering freebirth. Ethnicity of participants considering freebirth. The youngest woman was 19, and the oldest was The man was 42, but his partner's age is unknown. The average age was The same person who declined to indicate their ethnicity or sexuality, also declined to indicate their age. Ages of participants considering freebirth. In terms of geographic distribution, participants considering freebirth were not confined to any particular location in the UK.

Geographical distribution of participants considering freebirth. The demographic characteristics of those considering freebirth were similar to the demographic characteristics of the entire dataset, with the exception of sexual orientation. Bisexual, lesbian and pansexual respondents made up 4. Sexual minority women were therefore more likely than heterosexual participants to be considering freebirth.

Contingency table testing was used to determine if this difference was statistically significant. Although we did not collect demographic data about the profession of either the pregnant person or their partner, several respondents mentioned it within their responses to the open questions. One woman was a senior medical professional, two others work clinically within the NHS, two are non-clinical birth workers, another's partner is a GP, and one's husband is a Registered General Nurse RGN.

It is interesting both that so many people with professional experience in either birth or healthcare were considering freebirth, and that they felt it was important to provide this information in their answers. Plans Before the Pandemic Interestingly, only one person who answered the survey had been planning to freebirth before the pandemic.

The other participants had a range of birth plans. Many had been intending to birth at home A significant proportion of respondents had also been considering giving birth in either a freestanding birth center, or an alongside midwife-led unit 11 , whilst two women had been intending to give birth on the labor ward, and one woman had been intending to have a planned cesarean birth. Is [sic] any complications developed to go to [named] Hospital. Only two women had given birth before the survey, and of these, one woman had had a freebirth, whilst the other had seriously considered freebirth, but in the end had been able to obtain the midwifery care that she had been told would not be available.

In the end, though, the midwife turned up with all the gear be and was happy to stay. Birth was extremely straightforward and fast 30 min after midwife arrived. The majority of expectant parents considering freebirth during the pandemic experienced negative feelings. Positive feelings seemed to be more prevalent amongst participants who had made the decision to have a freebirth, whilst those who were still undecided did not seem to share these positive feelings.

Options Considered Expectant parents in this study had a range of different first choices for birthplace, including homebirths, birth centers and MLUs, labor wards, and elective cesarean births. When expectant parents' plans for birth changed because of lockdown, a freebirth was not always their second choice for birth either. Some women's second preference was to give birth in a different NHS setting, which they had been informed was not available to them.

These are fully qualified midwives, who are registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council in the same way as NHS midwives. Independent midwives are self-employed, whilst private midwives are employed by private companies. Four women had hired an independent midwife, at the time of the survey.

However, more women commented that they were unable to hire an independent midwife. One woman had considered hiring an independent midwife before lockdown, but had spoken to their maternity services who had reassured her they would be supportive of a home vaginal birth after cesarean with the result that she decided not to hire an independent midwife.

Unfortunately, the local homebirth service had then been suspended, and the independent midwife no longer had any availability. Combined with the cancellation of NHS home births, women in my area are left with few choices of any. The majority of participants who were considering freebirth because of Covid had considered at least one other option subsequent to the changes in their original birth plans. Freebirth was therefore not a first or second choice for the majority of participants who were considering it.

Reasons for Considering Freebirth Given that freebirth was the first choice of only one participant and was not even the second choice for many people, understanding the reasons why participants were considering it is important for healthcare services. The reasons given by expectant parents were varied. As Table 3 shows, they can be divided into three overarching categories: a desire to avoid hospital, birth preferences, and practicalities.

Reasons why participants were considering freebirth. These reasons were not mutually exclusive, and many participants expressed several reasons for considering freebirth. Avoiding Hospitals Thirty-nine participants said they were considering freebirth partly or wholly because they wished to avoid going into the hospital to give birth.

For some this was due to past experiences giving birth in hospitals.

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