Nexys2 spartan-3e fpga board bitcoins

Published в Can slim investing reviews for horrible bosses | Октябрь 2, 2012

nexys2 spartan-3e fpga board bitcoins

A 3D Graphics Accelerator for FPGAs. 1 × Xilinx Spartan-3E K; 1 × Micron MT45W8MW16BGX Mbit PSRAM, 70ns latency at up to. FPGA Lab 3 Digilent Nexys 2 Spartan-3E field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) Trainer Board, Installing Vivado and Digilent Board Files. NEXYS 2 FPGA Board. Spartan-3E. Clock+Glitch. Signal. Figure Test setup for fault injection on embedded systems via the fuzzy glitch. FOREX TRADING PLANS

We now use 64 bits for every 16 pixels, or just 4 bits per pixel, halving our original bandwidth and storage requirements. An improvement on all fronts? While the average amount of data we need per pixel has halved, the minimum amount has increased by a factor 8, as we now need to fetch an entire block to read even a single pixel from the image. Fortunately, the properties of the on-board RAM eases the pain a little. The RAM actually uses bit data words, and the time between sequential accesses is much lower than the random access penalty.

A random word read requires 70 ns, but 4 sequential words can be read in ns, less than twice the amount. We do get a lot more pixels for those ns. In a future post I'll talk about using a cache to make use of those extra pixels. Texture mapping is, at its core, pretty straightforward. You have a image the texture you want project onto your triangle. The texture has horizontal and vertical coordinates U and V. For a triangle, you can take the U,V coordinates at each vertex, and just interpolate to get the coordinates at each point within the triangle.

Then, when drawing the triangle, instead of directly drawing a colour we instead calculate the U,V coordinates, look up the corresponding texture element texel , and use that colour to draw to the screen. Pretty simple, right? We can actually already do this in QuickSilver, just use the R and G values as the U and V coordinates, put some memory nearby to place our texture, look up the texel, and output to the screen.

Unfortunately, this approach is both theoretically incorrect and practically infeasible. We'll ignore the theory, and solve the practical. Alright, so that is a bit of a bold claim, let me explain the theoretical incorrectness and why we'll ignore it.

The simple linear interpolation I talked about above great for triangles that are viewed straight on, flat relative to the screen, but it doesn't work for triangles to have some depth to them. Compare it to a brick wall. When you take a photograph of the wall straight on, each brick will be the same size on the photograph. Take a picture of the same wall from an angle, thought, and the bricks that are close will appear larger than those that are further away.

A simple linear interpolation would render each brick as equally wide on the photograph. This is called "affine texture mapping". We're not going to do that. It's a simple fix, I know, but it requires two additional divisions or one reciprocal and two multiplications for every pixel. And dividers in hardware are bulky and slow. Instead, we'll follow the great example of the Sony Playstation and Sega Saturn in just completely ignoring perspective correctness and render everything with affine mapping.

The second part of the problem is more practical with loads more little details further along the line. Storage and bandwidth limitations once again rear their ugly little heads. Let's start by calculating how much of each we'll expect to need. Seeing how the VGA output on the Nexys 2 board only has 8 bits per pixel, I'll use the same limit on the textures.

However, if both ends of the line have TTL levels, there is no need to convert into RS in between. For example, a Spartan 3E can be set to operate at 3. Consequently, it can receive TTL serial fine, but sending is erratic. On the other hand, the pin port of DE is set at 3. For starters, the plexiglass cover needs to be removed. There are no mounting aids such as holes near the chip, so a little creativity is required.

I had a Zalman ZM-NB47J available, having just the right size, power and colour ; With appropriate thermal paste, the heatsink stays put without any special mounting on a flat surface, but I wanted to keep my precious FPGA a little safer. A replacement for the plexiglass was cut from a plastic sheet, with a tight-fitting square hole to keep the heatsink in place laterally. I later expanded the sides for better airflow, keeping the corners tight. There is also a stack of translucent red Legos over the power LED, as the bright blue is annoying as such.

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