Hora en puerto rico exacta betting

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hora en puerto rico exacta betting

abrir [irr] to open Haga el favor de abrir la puerta. anticiparse to arrive ahead of time Se anticiparon media hora. Gazeta de Puerto-Rico. [volume] ([San Juan, P.R.) ?? This might be the right time so that the world can see the history of Puerto Rico, and see how the US has treated it, for the past years. FINANCIAL SPREAD BETTING MILLIONAIRE

Mayaguez or Cordillera Fault, acceL 0. They also correspond to zuost ofthe areas previoustyinentioned for ground shaldng amplification. The area to the south of the Guanajibo river is dassified as C-1 and the remained of the mountainous aiea is C Extreme care should be taken udien developing the coastal strip affected by the tsunami.

Recommendatlons- Recognizing the implications of the condusions stated above, we have defined some s topics that deseive prompt attention. Seismically,geologically and geomoiphologicalfy there is sufSdent evidence of Quatemaiy faulting in Westem Puerto Rico.

The fault is to be found en Idlometer 3ofroute soutfa ofthe Guanajibo River. We gratefulty acknowledge the help of Mr. We aslo thank E. Arroyo for providing us with rcsults of his studies. Asendo, E. Freeman and Company,San Francisco. Bonilla, M.

Bouchon, M. Briggs, R. GeoL InvesL Map Budhu, M. VoL XXn,No. Open File Report Curet, A F. Department of the Interior, U. Puerto Rico:U. Mairero, A. Masscn, D. GeoL Soc. Mattson, P. B6, pp McCann, W. BulL Seism. VoL75, Na 1, pp Reston, VA. In prep. McCulloch, D. Survey Professional Paper Geological Survey. Study prepared for Aqueduct and Sewer Seivice. Mcintyic, D. How many were filled under this law I am unable to state; but during the current school year, beginning October 1, , more graded systems were in operation, and in each case at least one American 'teacher is employed, and in some cases bright young American teachers have so mastered the Spanish as to secure positions in the higher grades and principalships of the schools.

The total number of American teachers now engaged in the schools is above , and the demand is for more, provided they know enough Spanish to instruct the children in their native tongue. These American teachers at the outset were mostly young men who came to Porto Rico with the Anerican army. None of them knew Spanish, and some of them knew little English. Gradually the quality was improved by the addition of groups of teachers, mostly women, from the United States.

These the military government carried free to and from San Juan and New York. The same assistance was generously continued by the Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of War, until the transport service was discontinued in June. These teachers were selected solely upon application and testimonial, and were not always desirable persons for the work nor typical representatives of the vast army of American teachers, but some of thent merit the warmest commendation and the greatest respect.

Under circumstances most unusual and conditions most unpropitious they entered upon their labors and did nobly. Living often in a remote village, without a single associate who spoke the English language, they struggled on and accomplished much good. Fortunately these are gone, and the better teachers remain to carry on a really helpful and arduous task.

The people of Porto Rico have patiently borne with these adventurers, and quietly longed for their departure. What the schools need above all else is a trained body of earnest teachers who come to help, and who know what it means to sacrifice for a great cause. This year, in addition to those who have been reelected, about 50 American teachers have been selected and they are now entering upon their duties.

These have some knowledge of Spanish. They are graduates of leading universities, colleges, and normal schools, have been successful teachers in their respective States, and are for the most part young men and young women of ability and discretion. It is confidently believed that these teachers will do a great service to the schools of Porto Rico. Under the military law these teachers of English are called '"kindergarten teachers,"' and the idea was widely circulated that these teachers from the States should be and were trained kindergartners.

The term "prinmary teacher" was held in reproach, and as a result the people were given a false idea of both kindergartens and of primary schools. As a matter of fact, only a few trained kindergartners came to the island. Teachers of all grades of American schools, young women from normal schools, young men from colleges, with no experience whatever in any kind of teaching, and in some cases young men with no training in any higher institution and with no experience in teaching, went into the towns as kindergarten teachers.

Some people in Porto Rico were well enough acquainted with educational systems to detect this fraud, and the reaction in places was by local school authorities to declare their opposition to employing kindergartnersi. Porto Rico is not yet ready for the wide introduction of the kindergarten. In a few cities such an institution has a legitimate function, and in these it will be founded. Some one is responsible for this unfortunate travesty in true teaching.

Historically the kindergarten came late. Froebel did not publish his Education of Man until The first kindergarten was opened at Keilhau in Before this time the schools of the world did some good, and did it without the kindergarten gifts or methods. Pedagogically the kindergarten is the last refinement of a highly organized system of education that proposes the entire education of the child for the most complete social, industrial, and civic activities. It is distinctly a socializing institution.

It aims to organize the social life of the child, as exhibited in play, into constructive and educative processes. It presupposes other educational agencies and a home life so intense in its limitations as to demand a counter influence that shall make for social altruism. It is an admirable conception and a potent influence for the child's well-being; but it represents an educational specialization wholly out of proportion to the needs of this people at present.

Here are thousands of children, half clothed, half fed, half housed, half homed. They do not know how to read and to write; neither do the people around them. At least 80 per cent of all the people are illiterate. To teach children to read, to write. Later on the more specialized forms of education must be gradually taken up. Historically, pedagogically, and even practically, then, this kindergarten idea for Porto Rico is wrong.

These American teachers know little Spanish. The children know no English. The people are anxious to have their children acquire the language of the United States. They also love their native tongue. The curse of illiteracy must be removed.

The schools must do it. These teachers from the United States must teach these children the language of the United States. They must also teach the native teachers how to acquire and to impart the English language. The native teachers can teach the Spanish language, and need only for this work the example and direction of trained professional teachers.

No teachers of English go to the rural schools. The salary, the lack of Spanish, and the condition of living preclude them. These schools are now taught wholly in Spanish. The normal school and other agencies must speedily give the teachers of these schools a knowledge of the English language, that all the children in the schools may have instruction in both languages.

This change can not be accomplished in one year, but it can be commenced, and in less time than one may suppose these teachers will be able to accomplish decided results. The Spanish language will not and should not disappear from these schools. In Pennsylvania it required generations to put English and English only into the schools. In New Mexico the facts are the same. It will be a hindrance, not a help, to deprive these people of an opportunity to acquire both languages. The salary of an American teacher was fixed by military law, and is far from just or adequate.

When this law was announced the War Department obligated itself to give these teachers free transportation to and from San Juan and New York. This transportation was withdrawn June, Anyone at all conversant with American education knows that teachers of good training or successful experience can readily command more than the amount fixed by law for such service here.

We were compelled to employ only the inexperienced, the roving, the rejected teachers from the States. This is not wholly the case. A few admirable teachers have come that the climate may restore their shattered constitutions, and a few others have come as a solemn and sacred sacrifice for the Americanizing of the people of Porto Rico. These are true patriots and are worthy the highest commendation.

The teacher who braves a strange climate and a new environment for the good of those to be served is as much a patriot as he who in time of war carries the starry banner to victory. There is yet another menace in this limitation. The opening of commercial relations with our new insular dependencies has opened a new avenue for teachers who understand the Spanish language.

The teachers who come here and acquire the language should be paid a salary commensurate to their services, and should not be tempted by a larger salary to return to the States. Early legislation upon this matter is of vital importance to the future of the schools of Porto Rico.

The department suffers from another unfortunate condition. The military law demanded one teacher of English in each graded school, but it did not give the department the power to appoint the teacher. That power is vested in the local board of education. They may appoint any teacher whom they see fit to select.

The department is wholly at the mercy of local control. The commissioner must write to the teachers in the States, guarantee them a fixed salary, secure for them transportation. In the meantime some other American teacher, holding a five years' license from the insular board of education, secures the place, and the department is obliged to seek a vacancy elsewhere. All this causes vexatious delay and great embarrassment in the assignment of teachers. Evidently the power that selects and provides the teacher should also have the power to appoint the teacher.

It is but fair to the majority of the local boards to add that in most cases this does not occur, due not to the law in the case, but to the good faith of these officers with the department. Under the same law these American teachers are to be given living quarters or an allowance in cash for such quarters at the expense of the local board. In many cases this has not been done.

Contracts were made, but the rent was unpaid, and the teacher was obliged to pay from her salary the rent or leave the rooms. The department has almost daily complaint of unpaid allowances to American teachers. Under the present school law this is wholly changed. This condition will now be greatly improved. But more important than this is the fact that the American teacher is now welcomed throughout the island and in many instances prominent citizens have offered a home free to the American teacher in order to have the influence of such a teacher in the community.

The teachers who have come from the United States have been distributed into all parts of the island. Before they have gone to their work the department has impressed upon them the importance of adjusting themselves to the conditions that now prevail in Porto Rico, and urged them to live as close in sympathy and in helpfulness to the people as possible. Most of these teachers are young people with little experience as teachers, but with splendid enthusiasm and the true spirit of sacrifice for the sake of others.

They have been successful. They have been met by the people with open-hearted hospitality, and they have found their place in the system of schools without friction or delay. Many of these teachers are giving special lessons in the evenings and on Sat-urdays in the English language.

One who has just written me says: I have in my evening class a lawyer, a doctor, two planters, the teachers of the city, and a number of young clerks in the stores. In this way these American teachers are earning for themselves not only the respect and cooperation of the better people, but also a sufficient fund to defray their expenses.

One teacher who has been on the island two years has earned enough by extra teaching to defray her entire expenses. And, in general, any reasonable and tactful person who understands how to adjust himself or herself to new conditions will find here a hearty welcome and a large field for usefulness. Those who have come in the spirit of criticism, or because they were not wanted at home, or because they felt they were making a great sacrifice to give up so much for the sake of coming to Porto Rico have not seriously impressed themselves upon the system of education and will not long remain connected with it.

It is true the world over that a good teacher always has the cooperation of his community and the support of the best people in it. It may be of interest to view local educational conditions through the eyes of the American teachers, to whom, in March, , a letter of inquiry was sent as follows: MARCH 20, Will you, therefore, write me at your earliest convenience a letter giving me your opinion upon the following points: 1.

Your frst impressions of your work as a teacher and of your surroundings as such. Your experience with the other teachers associated with you. Your experience with the pupils in the school. The value of the services of the English supervisor. Your opinion of the schools at the present time as compared with them when you first began to teach on the island.

Is there any progress? Are the children learning? In what particular directions do they show the greatest aptitude? What are your greatest obstacles? Is there any special hostility to your work? How is your room equipped? Have you sufficient books, sufficient supplies?

Are the books and supplies more numerous than when you first began to teach on the island? What suggestions have you to make for the improvement of the schools from your point of view? Are you willing to remain here next year to teach? If so, where would you like to be placed? Add any additional statement touching upon any problem which has interested you and which you think would help me to form an intelligent judgment upon the work as you have found it in your community up to the present time.

I shall be very glad to hear from you, and beg to remain, with the sincere desire to help you in every way in my power, Very truly, yours, M. To these questions we received almost one hundred answers. These were carefully studied, and when it was deemed advisable the suggestions of these teachers became the basis of modifications in the work in some sections.

I believe that it will be valuable to submit what seem to be typical answers, mirroring as they do the concrete face-to-face conditions now prevailing in the school work here. A careful study of these reveal the limitations under which school work is done in the island. The general tone of the letters is hopeful, and in many cases they present facts that indicate unmistakable improvement and a growing public concern in education.

I also found the children much further advanced in English than I had anticipated. I have always had abundant supplies, such as pencils, books, writing material, etc. Being unable to speak Spanish fluently, I felt handicapped, and was impressed with the magnitude of the task. My surroundings were very pleasant.

The room was very small, warm, and dirty. Adjoining this room was one of the same size. The supervisor had the partition taken down. I had this large room whitewashed, bought pictures from the Perry Picture Company to decorate the room; also obtained some flags to help decorate. I then told the children to bring some plants, and we have now 13 nice plants. I hire a little boy to sweep my schoolroom every day and to wash the floor on Saturdays. The children like their schoolroom, and I feel more than repaid for the pains I have taken when I see their bright and happy faces and think what kind of homes some of them come from.

My first day in school so wrought upon me that it made me ill. All the pupils studied and talked at the top of their voices, the professor smoking and talking at the same time. Older pupils were instructing younger ones in groups about the room, each trying to drown the noise of the others. Such confusion! My supervisor asked me to reorganize the school and to supervise the work.

I arranged programmes for the other teachers and myself, and induced the teachers to instruct the pupils in classes instead of allowing individual teaching by the pupils. System greatly lessened the din, but the question of order continued to be a difficult one. English had been studied for a few months before my arrival, and teachers and pupils were able to translate the first dozen pages of the text-books, but the pronunciation was unintelligible. The pronunciation was always bad in that school.

It seemed impossible to correct the errors to which they had become accustomed. In arithmetic pupils were hampered by the English text and their lack of experience in mechanical work. Very little progress was made. The change in the management of the school was not popular, and about one-third of the pupils dropped out, but those who remained were good workers, and I could see at the end of the year that, though they knew little English, they had gained in power of self-control and study.

I have never known one to manifest an interest, either outside or inside their schoolrooms, that would induce pupils to attend more regularly or punctually, or encourage a parent to send children to that school. They have been very courteous and kind without exception, also ready to supplement my efforts as teacher of English.

The American teachers whom I have met socially have been cordial and friendly. As they had been in the habit of teaching but four or five hours, they declared war at once. My experience with the teachers here afterwards has been of the pleasantest. Most of them have never been under any kind of discipline, and are careless and lacking in self-control. They are not bashful; they have so little self-consciousness that it is hard to control them without resorting to physical means.

When one thinks of the homes they have come from and the new experience which a nice, clean, well-conducted school is to them, it is really wonderful the way they behave. In the three months I have taught I have never heard or seen any disorderly or disobedient conduct, and I visit five classes daily. The task of disciplining the girls was a very disagreeable one on account of their desire to run affairs and their objection to being criticised. At present, however, this spirit has almost entirely disappeared and I have little trouble in securing obedience.

Although the majority lack what I consider the bringing up which they really need, yet they are obedient in general. Overtimid and very respectful to me in school, and on the street calling to me and addressing me in English always. Naturally they are of a very restless nature, and, as some are little tots who have entered school for the first time, they are inclined to talk some before thinking. They are always willing to help me in everything. The supervisor being a person with knowledge of school work, he can supplement the judgment of the principals with suggestions drawn from his own experience.

Supervision is doubly essential during the transition period. I think Americans are more capable of supervising the American system than are Porto Ricans. The progress of the schools on the island is due, in a great measure, to the thoroughness of the work of the supervisor.

The knowledge that there is one who takes an active interest in the progress of the duties on hand, who can be consulted over some perplexity or suggest some improvements in case of error, is most encouraging and helpful to a teacher. To the pupil the presence of the supervisor in the school room imparts a sense of respect toward the teacher and a feeling of responsibility in the preparation of their studies.

The school receives all which I believe lies in his power to furnish. He has much to attend to and attends to it well. Their duties should be arranged to allow of their giving practical lessons to the native teachers, especially in the rural schools. If this is impracticable, then an assistant should be appointed to do this work. The supervisor is a very necessary but too busy being to do all that's needed. I attribute the support I received here from the other teachers in great part to his efforts.

In general, here, he seems to act as a sort of balance wheel to the whole machine. His monthly visits bring an inspiration and stimulus both to the teacher and pupils. The teachers I have met in this district are anxions to meet his wishes in every particular. I think the districts are too large. There are but twenty school days in a month, and it seems to me impossible for a supervisor to properly visit forty or fifty schools each month.

Before, it was almost a disgrace to go to a public school; to-day, the best families send their children. The children are doing well. Our rooms are very badly furnished-old-fashioned desks, and not enough even of those-so that when you put all the class to write on their slates they have to double up. The books and supplies are sufficient and we get all we ask for.

The room is nicely equipped and I have all the supplies that I need. For the improvelent of the schools, I would suggest that another class room be opened for fourth-grade studies. The children are all learning, some more rapidly than others, this depending both on the capacity of the pupil and the character of the teaching done. The children seem to have particular aptitude for memory studies. Have had to guard against rote-learning in the teaching of reading.

There is not the slightest hostility to my work. I am encouraged rather than discouraged. My rooms are poorly equipped, as I have only plain hard benches and no tables or desks, so that perfect order and the best work are impossibilities. There are plenty of books and supplies. The children are steadily advancing in their studies and show most aptitude in reading. My greatest obstacle is the irregularity of their attendance, which is owing to the little interest taken by the parents or relatives.

The only hostility to my work has come from not allowing the children the use of the books supplied to the school at their homes. They show a great desire to become teachers and to go to the United States to study. My greatest obstacle is lack of furniture.

There is no special hostility to my work. If the children had individual seats it would be easier to keep order. I have a large table and an old cane chair, partly broken. A very small cupboard with a very poor key. I am obliged to enter through the other rooms because there is no lock on my door, consequently I can do no work in my room early in the morning. I have books and supplies enough, such as they are.

They are about the same as when I first came. Those parents hostile to the American system send their children to private schools. My equipment is very good with one exception, my table is made of a couple of old desks with a blackboard across them. Books and supplies increasing all the time. I believe most American teachers here now have some knowledge of Spanish, and the native teachers have adjusted themselves somewhat to the new order. It is badly graded.

Another obstacle is the home influence. The children learn well. I have not noticed any special aptitude for any subject. I have never had reason to suspect hostility in my work. Parents keep their children out of school on the slightest provocation, hence if possible I would suggest the enforcement of a compulsory education law.

All their work on slate or paper is neat and legible, and some of it is beautiful. This is due to poverty, lack of clothing, rainy weather; many children live a long distance from the school, and religious festivals. I know of no hostility to the work. Progress is more rapid in some studies than in others, arithmetic especially being difficult to teach, but ascribe this more to neglect and inferior teaching under former system.

Already I have awakened a live interest in this study and I believe will soon be as much to taste and interest of pupil as English, geography, or history. We have every reason to feel encouraged. I must not forget to say, also, that the children are better treated now.

When I came here the teachers were in the habit of striking them over the head a great deal. As far as I know there is no more of that form of cruelty. There has been no improvement in the sanitary conditions.

I assuredly do think the children are learning, and infinitely more than they ever would have learned had the island remained under Spanish domination. Having only taught English last year and the so-called kindergarten this year, I scarcely feel competent to say in what particular direction the children show the greatest aptitude. My little ones seem to take to numbers more readily than reading. I think the greatest difficulty I have encountered is the lack of punctuality and regularity in attendance.

Neither parents nor children seem to have any idea of time or of the value of time. My room is very well equipped now, and the books and supplies are much more numerous than they were last year. In fact, I sometimes think we have an 'embarrassment of riches' "The children are certainly learning. They seem most apt in English readingperhaps because they are so eager to learn the language. The greatest obstacle has been my little knowledge of the Spanish language; others, the lack of proper accommodations and material to work with.

There is great progress, and the children are learning as well as can be expected. My pupils show the greatest aptitude in their number work. They are very quick to answer the simple problems I give them. The teachers have a better knowledge of what is expected of them. The school work goes with more regularity.

This is progress. The children are learning English, for which in my room they show the greatest aptitude. The greatest obstacles are bad discipline and irregular attendance. The chief obstacles to more rapid progress here are the 'newness' of the whole thing to them, and the ignorance which prevails in their homes.

But the people in the vicinity seem exceedingly well disposed toward the schools, and the local board does all in its power to help us. My room is well equipped with sufficient desks for all, part of them homemade, the rest second-hand American desks. In regard to supplies, I have never yet asked for any which I have not promptly received.

A vacation of three months is an injury to the pupils, and besides there are many practically unavoidable absences during the year. No teacher who lacks the ability to speak the language can do justice to his work here. I think something should be done in the way of physical culture. These children are greatly in need of it. Some simple instruction in phys- iology and hygiene is desirable. Above all we want schoolhouses.

Give us a properly equipped schoolhouse in this town and in a year we will show you a school equal to the best school, private or public, in the United States. I think there should be another school here next year so as to give all the children an opportunity. The English teacher should not be obliged to go from room to room to teach. A teachers' institute should be added to the teachers' yearly programme at the earliest possible date.

The institution of some mode of giving practical lessons to teachers in methods of work, etc. I would respectfully suggest the appoitnment of an assistant supervisor in each district. The time will not allow of justice being done to the children. That a careful grading of the children take place at the beginning of the school year and that the children once graded be not promoted till the end of the school year or till the work of that grade be concluded to the satisfaction of the teacher.

At present parents send and remove their children from the schools at their pleasure, which break in the children's duties is most detrimental to their progress, sense of order, and respect to the teacher. The want of suitable schoolhouses is greatly felt.

The room in which I hold my school, although not of the worst, does not possess the required conveniences. If any plan can be devised for earning certain privileges through honest effort, not always by excelling in results, it might be a factor in their moral education. If it were possible, I think an industrial training would be of the utmost advantage.

At least we might have manual training. I would suggest that more such classes be formed next year in order to give those teachers who so desire a chance to study and advance. The enrollments have greatly fallen off, yet the streets are crowded with children. If the teacher is liked, the children attend school; if not, the reverse, and this liking is the outcome of the standing of the teacher, personally, the family politically, and antecedents generally.

An arrangement whereby the municipalities or the guardians of the children might be made responsible for the loan of books by the teacher, to the more advanced pupils would, in my judgment, materially promote progress. Report of institutes for teachers. Teachers Attendance. San Juan June 25, July San German July August August August 9, Very satisfactory.. Rio Piedras August 30, Vega Baja September Very satisfactory. This was due to the fact that there were not as many schools opened as the funds made possible.

This money was apportioned in unequal sums to the different municipalities, depending upon the number of schools they failed to open under the law. So far as reports have reached this department they are herein given, but they are by no means complete. Report of summer schools for July and Au igust, JULY, Q '2 o 0' " ' IT Piedras I 2 Manillas The remainder of the sum was available for my own management during the remaining nine months of the fiscal year.

No public sentiment had as yet been aroused. The schools were regarded as institutions imposed upon the people for reasons not to them apparent. It was vastly more important in this crisis to create popular sentiment than to discuss methods of teaching. The great fundamentals of an educational propaganda were needed.

The future of the schools depended upon removing the inertia and the caustic criticism so rife in the island. The cry that "two years of schooling was already wasted" had to be silenced. It is silenced. One can travel throughout Porto Rico to-day and find no such hopeless cynicism. The only adverse discussion now comes from those who have found that their own immorality, incompetency, or negligence has caused them to be dismissed.

The schools are infinitely better for such self-disgraced critics, and the people know it now as they did not know it one year ago. As soon as the legislature adjourned I addressed myself to the problem of visiting the island and laying before the people what seemed to me to be the most important educational problems with which at the present time we have to deal.

To this end I secured the services of two distinguished men, the Hon. Henry Houck, for many years deputy superintendent of public instruction for the State of Pennsylvania. These two men are among the best known educators in the Union, and have, perhaps, with few exceptions, addressed more teachers than any other instructors now before the public. Having had wide experience in administrative problems, they were especially equipped to serve the people of Porto Rico. They volunteered their services without compensation, and reached the island on the morning of the 8th of March.

Five sessions were held with the teachers of San Juan and Rio Piedras districts on the 8th and 9th of March in the theater of San Juan. These meetings were well attended, considering the brief time they were announced, and the meeting on Friday night was especially large and enthusiastic. General educational ideas were presented, and the teachers especially were led to understand something of the purpose of an educational system.

In this, as well as in all subsequent meetings, we were greatly aided by the splendid services of our interpreter, Dr. On the 12th and 13th five sessions were held in the city of Mayaguez in the theater. These sessions were attended by teachers from Aguadilla district, Mayaguez district, and San German district, and the theater was packed during all the sessions.

A more enthusiastic and successful educational meeting has rarely been held, and it was the unanimous verdict of all those who were present tht t the meeting had accomplished a vast amount of good. At the close of the afternoon session on the 13th we drove to San German and addressed an immense audience in the public theater of the city.

The room was so packed that it was difficult to even find standing room, and many people were unable to obtain admission. The next morning, after a very difficult drive, the party opened an institute at Yauco, remaining there for three sessions, all of which were well attended, the room being filled to overflowing, and after the night session the commissioner of education was obliged to go out into the public plaza and address over people at an overflow meeting.

The next two days were spent in the city of Ponce, where the meetings were held in the alcaldia, and were attended by the best people in the city. It was necessary to employ policemen to keep people from crowding into the hall. All of these meetings were arranged for by the supervisors of the respective districts, were carried out at the exact time, and in the manner most gratifying to the department.

About teachers attended the sessions and at least ten times as many of the leading citizens of the southwestern part of the island. Everywhere the people were cordial, courteous, and hospitable, and it is believed that these unique exercises, really the first great educational mass meetings ever held on the island, will result in a vast amount of good by encouraging the teachers, by directing them more specifically in their work, by explaining to the community the purpose of the schools, by creating a public healthy sentiment in favor of popular education, and by stimulating the parents and the children into a Page [unnumbered] 'c.

Much of the success of the meetings, of course, is due to the efficient work of the supervisors and the arrangements they made for the meetings. At all the sessions the children sang the national hymns, and the members of the avuntamiento, the alcalde, and the local school board attended the sessions and gave their cordial support to the work.

These mass meetings were all conducted on time. There was no delay at any point. To accomplish this I was obliged at times to compel good friends to allow us to continue our journey, although much entertainment was necessarily sacrificed to do so. Perhaps the loss in this was more than counterbalanced by the lessons of system and order that the chosen course developed. But this meant sacrifices that few of the readers of these lines can appreciate.

To rise before daylight, to drive 20 miles before 9 o'clock through a downpour of rain, to travel roads that are a disgrace and a danger, to overcome at once the threatened delays from breakdowns and from untruthful and tardy servants, and to meet thousands of people in time, deliver three or four addresses each day, and all this in a tropical country among a people whose tongue is not one's own, gives but a partial view of the work undertaken and accomplished.

A few incidents of this tour may not be amiss. My friends had, of course, no conception of the scope of the work being inaugurated throughout the island. Driving hastily from Camuy to Aguadilla, we suddenly rounded a turn in the road, and before us stood a poor frame structure about 12 by 16 feet, and without one pleasing or redeeming feature, save that an American flag fluttered in the trade winds.

It was the flag that caught the eye and forced the inquiry from Mr. Houck, "What's that? It was all so sudden, so unexpected, so glorious, that my friend's eyes overflowed, his heart was enraptured, and the speech he made in that school by all of us will long remain a sacred memory.

The children, perhaps, little understood the testimony their presence bore to the majesty, the glory, the power of an American system of education. Many schools were visited during the journey. This one was the first, the glorious revelation to my friends. At Mayaguez beautiful words of welcome were spoken by a native teacher in good English, and the children of the town fairly overwhelmed our party with rare tropical flowers.

At San German I was impressed with the mass of common people whose curious eves filled every coign of the theater. In my remarks it seemed fitting to say that the free public school was infinitely more potent in lifting the island than all political discussion; that the product of the school, as it is known in the States, will most of all contribute to the speedy placing of a new star in the azure field of the glorious flag of freedomthe star of Porto Rico.

This hint at statehood was instantly understood by every person in the vast audience, and the scene that followed defies analysis. If anyone wishes to know what these people most desire, let them image the scene at San German. We have reached the point now in Porto Rico when, in the major portion of the island, it is understood that the open door to the Federal Union is the free public school.

These people will enter this door and they will not return till they have achieved what they so earnestly long for. At Yauco the people came otit in the highway in a steady pour of rain, met us, and escorted us into the city.

At the close of the evening session, and before I was able to get to the plaza to address the poor people at an overflow meeting, a native teacher arose and respectfully urged that he be allowed to speak. He was a man above 40 years of age, and a well-known and prominent teacher under the Spanish and the American systems.

He was allowed the privilege he sought; in impassioned Spanish he wrought his hearers to great enthusiasm in his discussion of the hopeful and happy condition of education now. He concluded by saying, in language too figurative to bear interpretation, that he was especially rejoiced to have the honor to speak upon a platform draped with the flag of the great Republic; he loved that flag, he added, which our grandfathers were compelled to hide in their garrets, but which, now, thank God, floats above every school and waves over every true heart in Porto Rico.

In Ponce, the concluding address was made by the president of the school board. The interpreter declined to convey in English the eloquent language of thanks and felicitations. The address was eloquent and in it the speaker referred to the songs rendered by the children. I have listened to our own children singing your bright, joyous, hopeful, national airs in a language I understand not, but with a spirit I can appreciate; I have heard them also sing our own sad, almost mournful, hopeless Borenquin.

The songs are typical of our two races. Let us pray that from the commingling strains of these songs there shall be aroused a new and united spirit-the spirit of freedom and 5 -equality-in the entrancing glory of which Porto Ricans and Americans, a united people, shall march steadily and gloriously to a common destiny.

These sentiments and scenes figure the rising life of this island. So long as education has the vitality and integrity to produce such results, it is safe to trust it and to promote its activities. The immediate need in Porto Rico of an increased healthy public sentiment in favor of education is most apparent. It would quicken the interest in all the schools; it would secure more regular and prompt attendance on the part of the pupils; it would increase the demand for schools throughout the island; it would make it easier to discriminate between good and bad teaching; it would strengthen the hands of the department in dealing with poor teachers; it would sustain the department in promoting efficient teachers to better places, and, in general, it would become the broad democratic foundation upon which to build a system of free public schools.

These meetings may therefore be said to have been successful because they did foster this sentiment and because they did contribute in no small degree to the enlargement of the people's views and the quickening of the people's interest in their educational system. When in April Prof. Todd became principal of the apology for a normal school which by law I was compelled to maintain at Fajardo, he was at once impressed with the scope of the work we were Page [unnumbered] Page [unnumbered] Report Commissioner of Education for Porto Rico, To him I suggested the value of a summer normal institute for ten weeks.

Like others with whom the project was discussed, he agreed that it was a most urgent and important matter, but was frank enough to express his doubts as to the success of such a venture, inasmuch as it involved the expense to each pupil of living in the city for ten weeks. The universal cry of "poverty," so widely voiced by political discontents, had overshadowed all minds.

To test the matter it was decided to issue a circular letter to the teachers, and to hope for an attendance of pupils. The circular was mailed and a faculty to meet the prospective group of pupils was employed. A copy of the circular is herewith given: To the teachers of Porto Rico: I desire to say a few plain, helpful words to you.

This year I planned to open schools in Porto Rico; I could not open all of these schools because I could not find teachers, and I did not want to bring from the United States a larger number of teachers than is absolutely necessary to introduce English into the schools and to help to organize a good system of education on the island.

It is my purpose and my judgment that the young people of this island should themselves be the teachers in the larger percentage of these schools. Next year it is my purpose to open 1, schools, and the great question is Where can I get the teachers? They will be paid promptly and well for their work, but I can not open the schools unless I can have the teachers.

I believe there are bright young men and women on this island who with a little help could obtain certificates and take these schools. I believe that this department can give this help, and I assure you that it wishes to do so. To that end I propose to open in this city of San Juan, in the Beneficencia Building, a thoroughly equipped and first-class normal institute on Monday, July 15, to continue ten weeks and close with an examination which, if passed, will give the candidate the right to teach in the schools.

You will see that we are almost teachers short of the number necessary to take these schools next year. There are two things, therefore, that I especially desire you to do: First of all, urge every bright young man and woman possessing a good moral character of your acquaintance to make every sacrifice in their power to attend this school, tuition in which, with books, will be absolutely free.

In this way we will not only have a good group of young people in the school, but they can be morally certain, if they pass the examination at the end of the term, of obtaining a good school for the year. There is no place in the world to-day where a prospective teacher can study with greater surety of immediate employment.

Second, I urge upon you the importance of yourself attending this summer school. Notice the growth of our system. Think of the needs of next year. Ask yourself the question, Who is going to lead in this work? Who will fill the best positions? Who will draw the highest salaries? Who will do the largest service for Porto Rico? I know that I answer rightly when I say that only those teachers who attend school, who study professional duties, and who fit themselves for leadership among their fellows.

This is your opportunity. It will pay you in more ways than I can state to make every sacrifice in your power and attend this school. There will be splendid faculty, the best Porto Rican and American teachers that I can find, and every help will be given you to make your standing for the next year better than your work of this year could be.

Here, then, is the purpose of the department. Here is its desire to help you. Here is its means to help you. Will you come? In reply to this circular I wish every teacher receiving it to write to me personally, inclosing your letter in the accompanying envelope, and giving to me the names of such young people as you think ought to go to the normal institute, and also giving me, if possible, the assurance that you will be here yourself to take up this good, this most important work fqr Porto Rico.

Tlne school opened on time, but for days in advance the railroad and the highway were crowded with bright, earnest young men and women, en route to the summer normal institute. No room in the school buildings was adequate to the opening exercises. Of this number more than half were prospective pupils. The school was vastly greater in number than we had hoped or expected.

An additional school building had to be secured at once, and the telegraph wires and special messengers swept the island to gather a faculty to meet this tremendous outflowing of pupils. It was the most magnificent testimony to the present educational system the island had ever witnessed.

School opened the next morning with a full faculty of 16 teachers:and an enrollment of pupils. One district, Bayamon, sent 58 of its 59 teachers, the other one being in the United States studying to improve his work. Many young men and women anxious to attend the school, but residing in San Juan, were refused admission solely because it was impossible to find room for them. This school did good work. The pupils for the most part were earnest and studious. They accomplished much good.

At the close of the session an examination was held and new rural, 26 graded, and 8 principal certificates were issued. This number is not enough to provide for all the schools in the island but it is a tremendous gain, and hundreds of the teachers holding certificates who attended the session will return reinvigorated and strengthened in the work. The school maintained classes in English, Spanish, arithmetic,:algebra, geometry, geography, history of the United States and of Porto Rico, physiology, methods and management in teaching, and in nature study.

There was also maintained a successful primary school which served as a model school to the native teachers. The most conspicuous progress was made in the mastery of English and methods of teaching. Good work was done in all branches. The general result was most gratifying, and within ten days of the close of the sessions nearly all these new teachers were at work in the schoolroom.

The examination at the end of the institute was a fair test of the intellectual fitness of the pupils to become teachers. The close supervision of the pupils for ten weeks enabled the teachers to form a fair judgment of the moral and personal fitness of the pupils, and the certificates were issued upon the basis of class work as much as upon the work done in the examination.

Describa la colonizacion de Pennsylvania. Compare las colonias " Virginia" y " Plymouth" con respecto al tiempo de su colonizaci6n, 4 su proposito, A su caracter y 4 su crecimiento. Explique de que modo tomaron posesi6n los Estados Unidos de los siguientes territorios: Louisiana, Alaska, Las Filipinas. De la clasificacion de la oraci6n con respecto 4 su significado y con respecto 4 su forma.

Escriba una oracion que contenga una cita literaria de algun autor d otra persona. Escriba una oracion que contenga el pensamiento de una cita literaria indirecta de algun autor i otra persona. Traduzca al espafnol: " In battle or business, Whatever the game, In law or in love It is ever the same; In the struggle for power, Or the scramble for pelf pelf-wealth , Let this be your motto, 'Rely on yourself. Decline las palabras en bastardilla en la pregunta num.

Name the different classes of pronouns, and give three examples of each class. Define "analysis," "personification," "syntax," "declension. Conjugate "come," indicative mood, present, present perfect, past and future perfect tenses. Discuta la causa de los ciclones, temblores, oleajes y mareas. Diga los ros mas importantes del mundo, de acuerdo con la contestacion anterior. Demuestre el por que los Alpes afectan el clima de Italia, y c6ino los Andes afectan el clima de Chile.

La lluvia en Egipto es muy escasa, sin embargo, el valle del Nilo es uno de los lugares mas productivos del mundo. Explique la causa. Diga d6nde estdn las siguientes ciudades y por que son notables cada una de ellas: Edinburgo, Atenas, Rio Janeiro, Toronto, Pekin.

Dibuje un mapa de Norte America, indicando las principales montafias, rios y puertos mas importantes. Diga algo sobre el regimen. A que se da el nombre de "pleonasmo"? De un ejemplo. Sirvase decir c6mo se forman los diptongos y triptongos. Diga algo sobre el acento ortografico. Construid una oraci6n condicional y decid: a cuantas proposiciones la forman y que nombre tienen 6stas; b en que modos y tiempos puede hallarse el verbo de la proposicion dependiente.

Sirvase decir el plan que seguira V. Diga la clase de trabajo, para tenerlos ocupados, que asignaria a los pequefios que estrn en el libro primario de lectura. Sirvase hacer un programa para una escuela rural de tres grados. Nombre diez requisitos de los que son necesarios para gobernar bien una escuela. Sirvase decir tres de los elementos del "poder para gobernar" que se requieren en todo maestro.

De las razones de su respuesta. ZCuantas clases de proposiciones hay en espafiol? De algunos ejemplos. Exprese el significado de cada uno de los tiempos del verbo. Diga lo que sepa de las conjunciones. Sirvase decir todo lo referente a la construccion gramatical. Diga algo de la silepsis. CCuando y por d6nde desembarcaron en los Estados Unidos? Qu6 acontecimientos notables ocurrieron en las siguientes fechas: , , Julio 25 de , Julio 4 de , , , y ?

Haga una descripci6n de las batallas en Bunker Hill y Bull Run. Explique en breves palabras a que se llam6 en " La doctrina de Monroe. Refiera en breves palabras la historia de la esclavitud en Puerto Rico y cuando y como fue abolida. Defina las palabras "glaciero," "volcan," "geiseros," "equinoccios," "zona" y '"marea. Cual es la poblacion aproximada del mundo? Y la de Londres, Paris y New York?

Nombre las partes del mundo y diga a que zona pertenece cada una. Mencione y diga d6nde estan geograficamente colocadas las capitales de los siguientes paises: Mejico, China, Espafia, Australia, Suiza y Egipto. Mencione tres de los mares colindantes del Jap6n. Nombre la capital y puerto principal.

Cite tres de los articulos de exportacion del Japon. B lo vende at C y pierde el 10 por ciento. Que fracci6n de la semana son 2 dias, 17 horas y 30 minutos? Reduizcase cada una de las siguientes cifras en yardas y encuentrese la suma del resultado: I vara; 24 pies; 21 pulgadas. Un cuarto de 12 pies por 13 pies 6 pulgadas, tiene que ser alfombrado con una alfombra que tiene - de yarda de ancho.

A y B trabajan juntos y pueden hacer una pieza de labor en 18 dias y A solo puede hacer el trabajo en 30 iias. Sirvase decir el plan que seguiril V. Diga la clase de trabajo, para tenerlos ocupados, que asignaria A los pequeflos que estin en el libro primario de lectura.

De la definici6oi do "genero" en gramiatica. Escriba las palabras de significaci6n contraria las siguientes: wtife, lord, lion, duke, empress, hero, master, niece. Forme una oracion que cctenga un nombre, un verbo, una preposici6n, un adverbio, un adjetivo y una conjuncion. Diga las partes principales de los -erbos do, eat, come, laugh, y conjuguelos en los tienipos pasado y futuro, en la voz activa.

Diga que oficios desempeflan "have" y "had" en algunos tiempos del verbo. De ejenplos. Explain comparison of adjectives and adverbs. Give the different degrees of comparison of little, hot, better, happy, near, worst, easily. Translate into Spanish: "A sparrow once built its nest under the roof of the mint building casa de hacer monedas at Philadelphia. It became quite tanie and was allowed to fly into the mint and eat the crumbs left from the lunches of the employees.

When he drew his hand out of the nest, he found it was covered with a vellow dust. On examining the nest he found it to be carpeted with soft little pieces of gold. Write a brief letter in English on any subject.

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