Paperage com forex pulp html code

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paperage com forex pulp html code

The study aims to identify and analyze, how the forms of code lounded that the phenolic content of pulp fruit has a hight degree as 0, to Berlin for processing by the saw mill and later by the wood pulp and paper employees (; the. org/paper/Z2k-Linear-Codes-Carlet/e1b0efbeac2ee9eae7f ATLETICO NACIONAL CAMPEON 2022 WIN SPORTS BETTING

In this study, both temperature and concentration of water inside sludge were assumpted are uniform and only a function of time. So, the rate of decreasing of moisture content are the one-dimensional case and their solution is expressed as non-dimensional value ratio which is formulated by Eqs. The effect of temperatures shows that the higher drying temperature need the shorter time for evaporation. D eff is one of the important parameter used to evaluate drying and by using Eqs.

This constant k then substituted into Eqs. By inserting a half thick slabs of sludge that is 0. However, high moisture content average cause of this renewable energy sources has become ineficient when burned directly. Based on the relationship between the moisture content of the sludge to its caloriic value as presented in Table 5 shows that the maximum moisture content is allowed to get the highest caloriic value is And then used as the base for calculating the potential of sludge utilization as coal substituent as presented in Table 6 Table 6.

Conclusions Test results of on-waste analysis shows that sludge of paper mills which is use OCC as raw materials are fulil the standard quality for B. The sulfur content of the sludge is much lower than the levels of sulfur contained in coal fuel.

The moisture content is inversely proportional to the ixed carbon, volatile matter, nitrogen, carbon and sulfur contents. Effective diffusivity values obtained sludge drying ie 5. These values are already in the range of previous research. Saving potential of coal if substituted with dried sludge 15 MC is a 5. Angelina E. Dewi Rara W. Sipil, Fak. Teknik Universitas Jember, Johan G. Ribeiro P. Cernec F. Waste Management Research, , Purwati S. Soetopo, Setiadji, Yusup S.

Kraft, D. Yusup S. Clement A. Doymaz, I. Jolanta L. We propose a method based on polynomial modelling to calculate the gray color data of different lightness. At last, as there are solving errors within the polynomial modeling, a new color target is developed to ind the real gray color based on the relationship and the inal relationship between CIEL and CMY are obtained. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed polynomial modelling method works remarkably well with the average color error is 3.

Introduction Color is very important for printing quality. Color and quality control starts with color management in prepress, an important step before any real printing actually takes places. Gray Component Replacement GCR process in prepress is used to reduce the process color of cyan C, magenta M , and yellow Y, and replaces them with an equal amount of black K ink. Theoretically the substitution of chromatic inks Cyan, Magenta, Yellow with a black one can easily performed, improper settings of GCR level can cause signiicant color difference in the image, because black ink cannot replace the colorfulness of chromatic ink.

Therefore, it is very important to determine the relationship between the CMY and K because the black ink has no chroma, the issue turn into inding the same lightness between the K color and the combination of C, M, and Y. Target of this research is employed for gathering sample data and then ten gray colors with different CIELAB values are used for calculating CMY values, to test the conversion error the calculated CMY values may present come chroma after printing, then a new gray color target is created to modify the CMY values to get the real gray color.

The commonly used calibration algorithm are 3D interpolation Pekkucuksen and Altunbasak, ; Liu et. A digital proof is a color prepress prooing method where a job is printed from the digital ile using inkjet, color laser, dye sublimation, or thermal wax print technologies to give a good approximation of what the inal printed piece will look like. The digital proof is generally less expensive than other prepress proofs.

Within color patches, most of color patches are not gray, it is hard to ind the CMY patches which contain none chroma information. The calculation of polynomial regression coeficients are usually based on the least squares method, which minimizes the variance of the unbiased estimators of the coeficient, under the the condition of the Gauss-Markov theorem. Therefore a new testing target similar to GrayFinder19 is developed according the color data in table 1.

And the Y value of the underneath patches are , , To know the accuracy of the obtained gray color data, twenty testing patches were selected to calculate the color errors. This experiment result is acceptable, because for most of the printing process the average error threshold is 5DE, the polynomial regression model is suitable for gray color calculations.

Figure 1. Gray Colors by Reprinting dan Measuring C M Y L a b 64 65 96 28 57 63 74 29 52 61 60 42 47 55 45 44 42 55 32 55 38 45 23 58 34 40 16 63 32 35 10 72 29 25 12 80 28 14 14 93 Figure 2. The Gray color Data Curves Conclusions The proposed polynomial regression model for calculating gray color data is essential for color reproduction in printing process.

If the CMY color data is not accurate, the gray image will show some chroma in the highlights. Mid-tones, or shadow. In this experiment, the accuracy of gray color data is acceptable. I gratefully acknowledge Mr Abdillah for his supporting of this research.

Also, I appreciate Ms. Noorbaity for her patient and sharing her great experience in Mathematics. Academic Journal. Pp 2. Fibers Polym. Rhodes PA. Color Res. Nussbaum P. San Francisco, CA. Srivastava S. Jurnal Imaging Science Technology. Digital Color Imaging Handbook. Chapter 10 : Gamut Mapping. Observation and study tropical hardwood basic density between 0. In the group of density to analyze the relationships between basic density haradwood to iber morphology, chemical of wood, pulp quality and physical properties pulp sheets.

The analysis shows the Basic density of tropical hardwoods will affect the cell wall thickness iber, lignin content of wood, pulp yield, residual alkaline pulping, Kappa Number, tear strength and folding indurace of pulp sheet. From its study produced 12 models of statistical equations and regression coeficients of the gravity of tropical hardwood iber morphology, chemical content, pulp quality and physical properties of resulting pulp sheet.

This equation model can be used as a simulation tool to make a selection of hard-wood pulp as raw material with a speciic gravity used, the speciic terms and conditions. Keywords : Basic density,Fiber morfology,Quality pulp,Regression Introduction The use of wood as raw material for pulp in Indonesia started around , when the natural forest resources began to be utilized optimally to support foreign exchange. Since the time of the Dutch paper mill was associated potential of the area, a famous West Java rice farming area and produce rice straw waste.

Built a paper mill with raw material rice straw in Padalarang. East Java lot of growing crops and sugar cane bagasse waste, built a paper mill Leces. Technological developments of the 20th century, built kraft paper pulp mill in Aceh, make a raw material from pine wood. The government regulation on timber extraction permits tropical forests including age, type and location resulting pulp quality varied. The use of wood for pulp approximately 4.

Kartiwa, Consumption wood pulp as the raw material resulting in high utilization of wood various types to maximum. The problem resulted pulp luctuation quality and the possibility of quality is decline. Factors that may effect the quality of pulp including basic Basic density, according to Brown , Cassey basic densityof wood for pulp preferably have basic densityless than 0. The basic density make effect to the pulping process, especially use of chemicals pulping.

To improve basic densityof wood that is associated and quality products ahir, conducted a study and analysis of quality basic densitywood pulp, chemical ibers and wood basic densityusing a secondary data FAO has a variation basic density0. Analysis using statistical regression correlation.

The study has results obtained are expected to predict the quality of sulphate pulp tropical hardwood with a different basic density types. Cassey ; Kocureck ; Kellomaki or basic densityof wood is heavy computation value divided by volume.

Basic densitywood types are necessary to calculate the cost transportation, predicting of strength, and durability properties of wood as construction. The higher the basic densityof the wood wood strength better and have expensive prices for construction materials. Full peripheral in the pulp industry that does not come into force, because the basic densityof the wood for pulp to be mild to moderate range of 0. The basic densityof the plant inluenced by age of plant, plantation area and genetics.

Basic densitywill cause differences to cellwall thicknes, iber dimention and type of vessel. The basic densityhardwood have effect to chips quality and current energy consumtion of chipper machine. Variation of basic densitymake a chips uniformity and consumme of energy chipper machine. Kelomaki , Tappi Differences in the manufacture of pulp densitu of wood required higher cooking chemicals, slower penetration of chemicals to chips.

The basic densityis important economic beneit element for selection a raw material pulp. Because the wood for pulp purchased by volume but the product pulp are sold on basis weight so that the basic density becoming one of decisive parameter.

Basic densitywood pulp results are directly related to volume unity, the relationship caused by wood as a raw materials. High basic densityof the wood that will produce hard milled pulp properties, bulky paper sheet, tensile strength, folding indurance and bursting strength very low but tear strength is high.

The wood basic densitymay effect which the height position of stem, tree age, structure wood , genetics, iber dimensions, and extractive substances. Table 1. F Dahl Germany where he added sodium sulfate salt cake into the recovery furnace as a substitute chemicals are lost during the process operations soda. Paper from pulp sulfate has the physical strength and excellent iber formation , so that the sulphate pulp process until now still survive and leading technology to produce pulp in the world.

Hardwood Pulp All kinds of plants have the cellulose ibers and can be used for pulping. But in the election process to consider the technical and economic factors Kartiwa, Technical factors include the basic Basic density, and the nature of the plant. This is to obtain optimal pulp quality at an economical cost. Tabel 2. Wood selected commercially for pulp material has been maintained and cultivated to sustain the industry.

But to consider the utilization of wood has not been known as an alternative to wood pulp. Timber of mixed tropical forests, consisting of more than two types of wood will have different properties. As the diversity of basic Basic density, chemical content varies can result in pulp quality is not standard.

The issue needed to aspire wood selection stage with the kind of future variations are not too wide. The results of the study and approach through a statistical simulation can contribute to pulp producers in analyzing the inluence of the basic densityof the wood to be used. Experiments Materials Data sample of basic densitytropical hardwood obtained were used in this study from FAO , which is processed and grouped into seven groups of basic densityfrom until 0.

Wood samples taken at random many 21 species of plants consists of species Sterculia sp , Alba sp , Sclerolobium sp , Poeteria sp , Drypetes sp , Bombax sp , Peltogyne sp , Perebea sp , Caryocarpus sp , Peoroma sp , Diospyros sp , Heyronima sp , Simarouba sp , Sapium sp , ap Duroira , Manilkara sp , Pterocarpus. Each wood species that enter into a class of basic densityare taken randomly 5 wood samples to represent a class of its basic Basic density Methods Data hardwood that has a basic densityof 0.

Data are grouped into seven classes speciied intervals with statistics, class time interval calculation result type is composed of to ; 0, Each class is represented by the sample interval timber as much as 5 random sample that represents the basic densityof the wood.

Observations and analysis are divided into three groups, consisting of groups 1 to the basic densityof the iber length, iber wall thickness, extractive and lignin. Group 2 for the basic densityof the yield pulp, pulp maturity KN, active and residual alkali content of extractives in the pulp.

Group 3 for the relationship of basic densityon the physical properties of pulp sheets. Results and Discussions Based on the data in Table 4 for the observation of the 21 species of tropical hardwood timber that is grouped into seven classes basic densityinterval showed the following results. Long ibers that have a range of 1. While the cell wall thickness of 0.

The classiication of the wood iber that has a quality class II and III of wood as a raw material has the properties of basic densitypulp in mild to severe, thin to thick-walled iber, the iber has a lumen of small to medium. Physical properties of the resulting pulp sheet has tear strength, bursting strength good or moderate.

Vademecum Basic Density to Fiber Morphology The basic densityof wood to iber length shows the results showed not correlated and not signiicantly. This means that the higher the basic densityof the iber length is formed not in line with increasing iber length. This shows that the basic densityof the wood will effect each other against the wall thickness of the iber or the iber wall thickness can be inluenced by past timber species.

This statement is in accordance with the Cassey that wood basic densitycan be inluenced by type of wood cell wall thickness Figure 1. In his study , we attempt to use basic densityan easyily measurable parameter, to correlate the effect of iber properties to asses their value for pulp.

Fig 1. Relationship of basic density to iber morfology The graphic in Figure 1 shows that the higher the basic densityof the wood , the walls of plant ibers will be more thick, while length of the iber is not much inluenced wood basic Basic density. The simulations showed that wood basic densitycan be effect the thickness of cellwall iber , so that the wood basic densityof light wood would be predicted to have thin cellwall iber is expected to be easier pulping and ibrilation.

Basic Density to Chemical Wood basic densityof chemically analyzed in the study only analyzes for lignin and extractives , according to Cassey , Kocurec , Sixta , Herbert. Relationship of wood basic density between wood chemical The content of wood extractives observed no signiicant effect on the high or low densities of wood , see Figure 2 and Table 1. Lignin content between Based on 21 types of hardwood pulp qualiies as material.

Period of wood for pulp raw material past its kind arranged to have densities of less than 0. Such criteria may be considered for use as raw material for pulp, but the pulping process used cooking excess chemicals required to achieve the same maturity pulp. Attachment 1. Extractive high in wood poses problems in pulping and stains on the pulp.

Obstacles like these are often found in mixed hardwood densities vary, so the quality of the pulp is not standard, it needs to be studied in-depth because it is still a matter of discussion to resolve it. Basic Density to Pulp Quality Effect of wood basic densityon yield parameters analyzed pulping, residual alkali and Kapa Number pulp. The results showed the yield pulp between Means that the low densities that will be easy to pulping and produces good quality pulp Cassey , Kocurec , Sixta, Herbert.

Cooking with active Alkali 15, Suliditas 25 is good enough as indicated by the level of maturity pulp by Kappa Number is low for a particular type. The analysis result is predictable and suggested the use of wood for pulp cultivated in monoculture and its basic densityis less than 0. With predict for prediction and the results of the study are expected to be able to keep the pulp quality and share the quality standards. The higher wood basic density used in the manufacture pulp, can be produce low-quality of pulp with the physical pulp properties decreased with the higher basic densityof wood.

As shown in the group wood basic density0. According Cassey , Kocurec ; Heikkurinen , Relationship of wood basic density to pulp quality The results of the observations and analysis contained regression suitability as proposed Parham et. The basic density of the wood need to be considered for selection as wood pulp material, because it can effect the physical strength pulp.

The relationship can be seen in Figure 3 and Table 2. Effect of the basic densityof the hard-tropical wood iber, chemical, pulp pulping and quality sheets, can be tested by using the approach of the equation in Table 3. This equation can be a tool as an initial study. This condition can be used as a starting point for predicting the wood to be used. Tabel 3. Regression and corelation coefisients basic density wood Equation R-squared Fiber length.

Source: FAO been processed. Conclusions Observation to 21 types of tropical hardwood have a basic density 0. Lignin content in wood is inluenced greatly to wood basic ic density, more higher wood basic density make a high levels of lignin on wood. Wood basic densityof tropical hardwood less than 0. Ahmed, A. Abu Bakr, S. Arry Widianto. Pengaruh teknik silvikkultur terhadap kualitas kayu. Edisi juni Kraft pulping — economic beneits from screening wood chips by thicknes.

Panshin; C. Texbook of Wood Tech. Graw-Hill Book. New York. Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Tech. Jhon Willey and son. Effect of laboratory pine wood pulp properties on sheet characteristic. Tappi Journal The relationships between ibre morfology and paper properties.

Two stage low-consistensy reining of mechanical pulp. Appita Journal. Juli-September Keteknikandan pemanenn hasil hutan. Sintesis RPI Puslitbang keteknikan dan pengolahan hutan, Bogor. Dwiyanto,Wahyu ; Sri Nugroho Marsoem. Tinjauan hasil-hasil penelitian faktor alam yang mmpengaruhi sifat isik dan mekanis kayu Indonesia.

Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis. Juli W Ramsedell. The practical aplication of statisical analysis in the industrial process. Tappi Press p. Pulping and paper making properties of fast-growing plantation wood species. Rorestry industries division forestry departement.

FAO of the United Nations. Grabner,Mwimmer, R. The inluence of temperature on latewood lignin content in treeline Norway spruce compared with maximum Basic density ring width Tree. Effect of spruce wood and iber properties on pulp quality under varying deibration condition. Tappi Intern. Mechanical Pulping Conference.

The Westin Galleria. Tapp Press. Handbook of Paper and Board. Substitution of hardwoodbkraft with aspen high-yield in lightweight coated wood-free papers. Tappi Journal vo. Kang, K. Zang, S. Manield, SD. The effect of initials spacing on wood Spesiic. The effect of three independent variables of alkaline pre-impregnation, namely reaction temperature, time and alkaline charge, on the soda-AQ pulp and handsheet properties were examined and compared. The alkaline charge applied on the pre-impregnation and pulping was totalled up as 25 based on the oven- dry weight of material.

The results obtained showed that the application of alkaline pre-impregnation would increase the pulp yields and paper properties signiicantly in comparison to the unpre-impregnated one; even though the effects on the pulp properties such as pulp viscosity and kappa number were trivial.

It was suspected that the increase of handsheet mechanical properties was due to the retention of a large part of hemicellulose which could contribute to a higher pulp yield, better hydrogen bonding but a lower average pulp viscosity due to its low degree of polymerization. Among the independent variables, the reaction temperature contributed the most inluence on the mechanical properties of handsheet.

Nevertheless, it showed less impact on pulp properties. Keywords: Alkaline pre-impregnation; soda-AQ pulping; mechanical properties, oil palm empty fruit bunch Introduction Various chemical pretreatments prior to an ordinary pulping have been reported for the enhancement of pulping eficiency []. On the other hand, Bykova and co-workers [3] found that pre-treating pine wood chips with model green liquor at a ratio 0. It was suggested that the diffusion and chemical redistribution on the biomass were the reasons for improving the rate of deligniication [].

The beneicial effects of the alkaline pre-treatment recycled black liquor prior to a conventional kraft pulping on the pulp and handsheet properties were also reported by Tripathi and co-workers [5]. It was reported that the screened yield, pulp viscosity, tensile, tear, and burst index of mixed hardwood pulp were improved by 2. The indings indicated that the application of a two-stage pulping process could enhance the removal of lignin from the biomass while minimize the loss of carbohydrates, especially hemicellulose [1,] through the alkaline hydrolysis and dissolution [1,].

Fibre from oil palm empty fruit bunch EFB has been widely investigated for the production of papermaking or even dissolving pulp due to its: i. Economical feasibility as it is a process waste from palm oil factories with relatively lower cost in comparison to ibre crops; ii. Chemical suitability as it contains relatively high in carbohydrates and low in lignin contents; and iii. Environmental sustainability as it is annually renewable and will not involve additional logging activity [].

According to some research studies, EFB soda and kraft AQ pulps were suitable for paper production and their resultant paper properties were comparable to paper produced from commercial hardwood pulps [9, 11]. However, due to its relatively shorter ibre length 1. In order to further improve the properties pulp and paper produced from oil palm EFB ibre, in this study, the modiied pulping method alkaline pre-impregnation followed by soda-AQ pulping was employed to produce papermaking pulp from EFB ibre.

Besides that, the effect of alkaline charge of pre-impregnation on the pulp and handsheet properties was also investigated. Bhd, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia. The EFB ibrous strands were irst soaked overnight in iltered tap water and then washed to remove contaminants. After that, the washed EFB ibrous strands were air dried for a week and kept in a plastic bag for further use.

The pre-impregnation was conducted with the ixed liquor to material ratio of and different combinations of alkali charge on the oven dry basic of EFB, temperature and time as listed in Table 1. All ibres were ensured immersing by the cooking liquor in the reaction digester for attaining a homogenous impregnation effect. Immediately after the alkaline pre-impregnation was done, 0. The ratio of liquor to material of the subsequent pulping process was increased to 8: 1.

The overall pulping conditions were shown in Table1. After the completion of pulping, the collected soda-AQ EFB pulp was deiberized together with spent liquor in a hydro-pulper for 10 min and washed thoroughly with iltered tap water in a stainless steel mesh ilter. The pulp was further disintegrated mechanically in a three bladed disintegrator for 1 minute at a pulp consistency of 2. The weight and moisture content of the spin- dried pulp were determined in order to calculate the screened yield of the pulp.

Pulp and Paper properties The pulp and handsheet properties were analyzed according to Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry TAPPI Standard—T to ind the kappa number and T to determine pulp viscosity while the physical properties and brightness of handsheet were determined based on T and T , respectively.

It was noted that the yield resulted from the pre-impregnation with 8 alkali charge were relatively higher as compared to their counterpart with 5 alkali charge. This phenomenon was probably due to, during the pre-impregnation, part of the alkali was impregnated into ibre and caused some lignin extraction or dissolution [1,2,5]. Thus, even though the remaining alkali charge was topped up for the subsequent pulping process, the alkali charge during the pulping was actually lower than 25 as compared to single pulp process.

As well recognized that the alkali charge mainly affected the degradation and dissolution of lignin as well as carbohydrates during pulping, hence, the increase of screened pulp yield indicated that the dissolution of biomass was reduced. Moreover, when the alkali charge used during impregnation was higher, the remaining alkali charge topped up for pulping became lower and therefore, the degradation and dissolution of the biomass, especially carbohydrates, were moderated.

Among all the pre-impregnations, conditions with 8 alkali charge treated at 65 o C for 2 hours AP6 and at 50 o C for 4 hour AP4 gave relatively higher screened yields of Effect of Alkaline Pre-Impregnation Variables on Kappa Number With the ixed soda-AQ pulping condition, all pulps produced by the impregnation incorporated pulping approach demonstrated, albeit small, relatively lower kappa number The further increase of reaction time andor temperature of AP2 and alkali charge andor reaction temperature of AP3 did not exhibited any beneicial effect on kappa number reduction.

This results designated that moderate pre-impregnation conditions was suficient for effective reduction in kappa number as it could help for better chemical impregnation and lignin dissolution. It was believed that as more severe pre-impregnation conditions were applied such as higher impregnation temperature, they would increase the rate of alkali penetration and consequently, affected the deligniication rate adversely during the pulping process since the alkali charge remained was lowered.

Nevertheless, the effect of alkaline pre-impregnation on EFB ibre was different from that on kenaf bast ibre [1] as the later attained a higher kappa number when the soda-AQ pulping was incorporated with alkaline impregnation. It was suggested that the different effect might due to the variation of biomass and also the condition of pre-impregnation applied.

As mentioned earlier in sections 3. Hence, it was believed that the decrease of pulp viscosity might not due to extended degradation of cellulose, but the retention of a larger part of hemicellulose. This is because the degree of polymerization DP of the amorphous hemicellulose was much lower than that of cellulose, thus, when the amount of hemicellulose retained in the pulp was increased, the average pulp viscosity was decreased relatively [1].

Nevertheless, among all the impregnation conditions, the changes of the three reaction variables did not show signiication variation on pulp viscosity. Effect of alkaline pre-impregnation variables on pulp viscosity of oil palm soda-AQ pulps. The implementation of impregnation allowed higher retention of hemicellulose, at the same time, lessened the cellulose degradation during the pulping process.

Moreover, the formation of ibre-ibre bonding in the pre-impregnated soda-AQ pulps were also improved due to better lignin removal, which increased the lexibility and hydrophilicity of ibres. On the other hand, a prolonged reaction time andor high concentration did not cause any negative impact on all the three strength properties. This indicated that ibre strength of all the pulps was still retained strong due to negligible cellulose degradation.

Nevertheless, the changes of the three impregnation variables did not exhibited consistent effect on the handsheet properties. For instance, even though AP1 yielded handsheet with the highest tensile index, Among all the impregnation conditions, handsheet of AP7 showed good improvement in all tensile In order to further verify the reason which caused positive effect on handsheet properties, further investigation on the chemical composition and water retention of each impregnated pulp was recommended.

As shown in Table 2, the alkaline pre-impregnated soda-AQ pulps resulted in a small increment of pulp brightness from The improvement of the pulp brightness was most probably due to increment of the rate of deligniication as a slightly higher kappa number reduction was observed for all the pre-impregnated soda-AQ pulps [1].

Moreover, the pulp AP2 with the highest brightness was also exhibited the lowest kappa number. Besides that, the increase of pulp brightness might be also caused by lesser alkaline darkening effect as the alkali charge during the pulping was reduced. Among all the impregnation conditions, the pulp which had undergone the impregnation with 5 alkali charge treated at 65 o C for 4 hours AP7 produced handsheet with highest mechanical properties in average and moderate high pulp yield and low kappa number.

On the other hand, if highest screen yield was taken into account, impregnation with 8 alkali charge treated at 65 o C for 2 hours AP6 was considered as the optimum impregnation condition and it also gave beneicial effect on brightness and rather high handsheet mechanical properties. Conclusion The application of an alkaline pre-impregnation prior to soda-AQ pulping on oil palm EFB ibres showed signiicant beneicial effects on the pulp yield and handsheet mechanical properties.

However, it showed less impact on deligniication and pulp viscosity. Nevertheless, further research is required to identify the optimum condition of the subsequent pulping process and pulp properties after the alkaline impregnation. Effects of alkaline pre-impregnation and pulping on Malaysia cultivated kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus.

BioResources ; 53, Improved impregnation eficiency and pulp yield of softwood kraft pulp by high effective alkali charge in the impregnation stage. Holzforschung ; 3. Effect of green liquor pretreatment on pine wood components behaviour during kraft pulping. Holzforschung ; 4. Ban W, Lucia, LA. Improvement in kraft pulp yield and strength properties of paper by black liquor pre-treatment of chips.

Bio-Resources ; 6. Pre-impregnation of wood chips for alkaline deligniication. Cellulose Chem. Agricultural waste ibers towards sustainability and advanced utilization: A review. Asian J Plant Sci ; Commercial-scale production of soda pulp and medium paper from oil palm empty fruit bunches. J Trop ForSci ; 19, Oil Palm ibers as papermaking material: potentials and challenges. Bio-Resources ; 61, Anthraquinone-aided hydrogen peroxide reinforced oxygen deligniication of oil palm Elaeis guineensis EFB pulp: A two-level factorial design.

J Cell ChemTechnol ; Production of pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches by environmentally-friendly methods. USM, Penang. Rao MM. Developing and prototyping of empty fruit bunch high density board. Raya Dayeuhkolot , Bandung , Indonesia syamsudinkemenperin. To ensure the sustainability of industrial development, it is require a savings and diversiication of energy as well as greater attention to the development of renewable energy resources that are cheaper and safer.

This paper reviews the potential and prospect of renewable energy resources in pulp and paper industry. The pulp and paper industry have some energy-rich biomass resources. These resources are produced in all stages of the pulping and papermaking process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, and wastewater treatment. The energy-rich biomass resulting from the pulp industry including bark falling from the debarking drum, sawdust coming from the slasher deck, wood waste from wood yard, pins and ines from chip screening, knots from deknotting, foul condensate, black liquor from digester, and sludge from wastewater treatment.

The energy-rich rejects resulting from the paper industry including iber bundles, plastics, foils and polystyrene, deinking and non-deinking sludge from wastewater treatment. The new renewable energy with higher energy density could be produced by turpentine decantation; steam stripping of foul condensates; pelletization of wood residue and paper reject; hydrothermal treatment of sludge; torrefaction, pyrolysis and gasiication of biomass; and fermentation and anaerobic digestion of sludge.

The renewable energy products are turpentine, stripper off gas SOG, methanol, hydrated sludge, biomass pellet, torriied biomass, bio-oil, syngas, biogas and bioethanol. Keywords: Renewable energy; pulp and paper; biomass; reject. In the last ten years , the inal energy consumption in Indonesia has increased from 79 million TOE to million TOE or grown by an average of 5. On the other hand, Indonesia face of declining fossil energy reserves and can not balance with the discovery of new reserves.

Indonesia has petroleum reserves in about 7. Total reserves of natural gas in about The coal reserves in about Assuming there is no discovery of new reserves, based on the ratio of RP ReserveProduction in , the petroleum will run out in 12 years, natural gas in 37 years and coal in 70 years [2]. Expected future trends in energy development will shift from fossil-based energy into renewable energy. This is based on the fact that fossil energy resource cannot be renewed so that eventually will run out, whereas Indonesia has signiicant renewable energy resources [2].

To ensure the security of energy supply, the government had issued Regulation No. The Indonesian Ministry of Industry has developed an industrial policy through RIPIN with respect to some aspects which have the characteristics and relevance that is strong enough with the national industrial development, such as energy shortages and increased concern for the environment. Energy shortages have been felt, and to ensure the sustainability of industrial development, it is required a policy of energy savings and diversiication as well as greater attention to the development of renewable energy resources which are cheaper and safer.

Mitigation of climate change and energy security are two of the driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. Green industry is industry that prioritizes the eficiency and effectiveness of the resources usage in a sustainable manner in its production process. Limited reserves of fossil fuels have encourages the pulp and paper industries to conserve and diversify the renewable energy alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and cheaper.

The pulp and paper mills have a large energy potential because they process a massive amount of lignocellulosic material which contain varying amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and a minor amount of extractives [4]. These resources are produced in all stages of the pulping and papermaking process, i.

Pulp mill is an intensive energy industry, but they should be able to fulill the energy it self through energy conservation technology integration of various biomass in the processes. Currently, the pulp mill fulill their energy needs by burning the heavy black liquor in the recovery boiler and bark and other wood waste in the power boilers.

Renewable Energy Resources in the Pulp Mills The main types of renewable energy resources generated from pulp mills could be classiied as biomass rejects, foul condensate, black liquor and watewater treatment sludge. Biomass Rejects in Pulp Mills The energy-rich biomass resulting from the pulp industry including bark from the debarking drum, sawdust from the slasher deck, wood waste from wood yard, pins and ines from chip screening, black liquor from digester and sludge from wastewater treatment Table 1 [5].

Rejects generated at pulp mill are knots from deknotting and pulp rejects from ine screening. Bark represents up to kgt of pulp and shares from wood wastes in a pulp mill and have heat of combustion around 20 MJkg dry basis [6]. Pins and ines represent kgt o. Knots represent on unscreened pulp or kgt of pulp [5] and pulp reject from ine screening represent 30 kgt o.

Generation of biomass waste in a Kraft mill [5] No. Waste Yield kgt o. Sawdust from the slasher deck 10 — 30 2. Bark from the debarking drum — 3. Pins and ines from chip screening 50 — 4. Wood waste from woodyard 0 — 20 5. Knots from deknotting 25 — 70 Foul Condensates The energy-rich biomass also come from foul condensate.

Chemical pulp mills, including kraft mills generate considerable amounts of condensates during pulp-making process. The condensate streams of concern include the condensates of the multiple effect evaporator, the overlow of the blow heat accumulator, condensates from the digester system, the underlow from the turpentine decanter and condensates from non-condensable gas NCG system.

The VOCs include methanol, ethanol, acetone and terpenes. Methanol is the major VOC in kraft pulp mill. The TRS is formed as the sulphide and hydrogen sulphide ions react with lignin and the methoxyl groups of lignin fragment. Typical pollutant loads and heat combustion of pollutant component from foul condensate from Kraft mill are presented in Table 2 and Table 3.

Heat combustion of pollutant component from foul condensate [8] No. Pollutant Net Heat of Combustion kcalkg 1. MeOH 2. CH 3 SH 4. CH 3 SCH 3 5. CH 3 SSCH 3 Black Liquor Black liquor, spent cooking liquor, is the raw material for the recovery cycle that contains organics from the wood and all of the inorganic chemicals used for deligniication [9]. The organic compounds in the black liquor about 55 and inorganic compounds about 45 [9] with typical higher heating values The organic compounds in the black liquor consists of a compound formed from the sodium salt of lignin, resin and fatty acids, acid from carbohydrates, and other organic compounds contained in the wood.

The inorganic compounds include sodium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulide, and sodium hydrosulide. A pulp mill generates 1. Wastewater Treatment Sludge Wastewater treatment process generates sludge cake, which is consists of primary sludge generated in primary clariier and biological sludge generated in the secondary clariier.

The primary sludge consist of high iber concentration and inorganic substances while the secondary sludge consist of mostly organic debris from biological process and inorganic materials from the nutrients to enhance biological treatment processes. The primary sludge can be dewatered relatively easier.

Primary sludge can be dried until moisture content about 70 by a belt press, or until 50 with a screw press [11]. Compared with the primary sludge, the secondary sludge is very dificult to dewater. The presence of intracellular water causes secondary sludge more dificult to be dried by conventional mechanical dewatering. The mechanical dewatering can only reduce the moisture content to about These sludges are generally blended together, a polymer added and dewatered together to a 25—40 dry solid content [12].

The caloriic value of pulp mill sludge about MJkg dry and ash-free basis [13]. Total generation of sludge cake per ton of product varies, depending on the production processes and the wastewater treatment processes. Kraft pulp mill generate sludge cake about 58 kgton of product, sulite pulp mill about kgton of product and deinking pulp mill about kgton of product [13].

The main types of solid waste generated from paper mills could be classiied as rejects from recovered paper, deinking sludges, primary sludges generated in the clariication of process water by kidney treatments and secondary sludges from the clariier of the biological units of the wastewater treatment [14]. Rejects in Paper Mills The paper-recycling process of paper mills generates reject waste in the region of of its raw material, depending on the recovered iber quality and process used in the mill [5].

The rejects from recovered paper composed by impurities such as lumps of ibres, staples and metals, sand, glass and plastics, and paper constituents as illers, sizing agents and other chemicals [14]. The two major categories of rejects are coarse and ine rejects. Coarse reject has its origin in recovered paper pulping and de-trashing, as well as coarse screening. Coarse rejects differentiate into heavy and light coarse rejects.

The heavy coarse rejects consist of metal, stones, not disintegrated paper or wet strength paper, wires, etc. The light coarse rejects consist of iber bundles, plastics pieces, foils, polystyrene, etc. Fine reject comes from process stages like cleaning, ine screening and from the approach low.

Fine rejects differentiate into heavy and light ine reject. The heavy ine rejects mainly consist of sand, glass, staples and other metallic ofice waste, discharged from cleaners, as well as from the heavy junk traps of combined screeningcleaning equipment. The light ine rejects from slot screening or light weight cleaning contain iber broke, spin-ups, stickies, wax, iller etc.

The components of reject waste are largely comprised of 51 ibers and 49 plastic [15]. The wet reject material can have a moisture content in excess of 70 [16]. The light coarse reject has the highest possible caloric value of 11 MJkg [5]. One of the limitations of solid waste for energy is bulky and high moisture content which is dificult to be stored, transported and utilized [17].

Deinking Sludge Deinking sludge is generated in the mills producing recycled ibre from recycled paper. Deinking sludge refers to the loat or scum that is evolved from the air lotation process used to remove inks and dyes from the recycled paper ibres [18]. The sludge on a dry mass basis can vary from 20 in a newsprint mill to 40 in a tissue mill.

Total suspended solids in the deinking sludge can be categorized into organic matter such as short ibres or ines and inorganic matter such as kaolin, clay, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide that are resulting from coating materials, ink particles, deinking additives, dyes, other pigment based contaminant and other chemicals used for paper production [12]. De-inking sludge has a high moisture content in the range [19] with typical gross heating value HHV of MJkg on a dry basis [18] and high ash content in the range of depending on the quality of the ibre initially brought into the mill [16].

Wastewater Treatment Sludge Balwaik and Raut [20] have reported that about kg of sludge is produced for each ton of recycled paper. The primary sludge consists of mostly ines of cellulose ibers and papermaking illers such as kaolinitic clay andor calcium carbonate and it is relatively easy to dewater.

The secondary sludges consists of a high microbial protein content, make it dificult to dewater. The secondary sludge volumes are lower than those corresponding to the primary sludge, since most of the heavy, ibrous or inorganic solids are removed in the primary clariier.

The secondary sludges are often need to be mixed with primary sludge or other iltration aids to permit adequate dewatering [12]. When compared with coal, paper sludge has very high levels of moisture and volatile matter, but low ixed carbon content Table 4.

Due to the high ash content and low caloric value of paper sludge, it is necessary to improve the combustion chamber temperature to enable the co-combustion of sludge with other fuel, to sustain the combustion stability and reduce the emission of toxicants [21].

Proximate, ultimate and heating value of biomass waste from pulp and paper mill No. Proximate analysis adb a. VM Ash Ultimate analysis adb a. LHV, calg Production of Renewable Energy in the Pulp dan Paper Mills The renewable energy with higher energy density could be produced by steam stripping of foul condensates from digesters and evaporators, pelletization of wood residue and paper reject; hydrothermal treatment and hydrothermal liquefaction of sludge; torrefaction, pyrolysis and gasiication of biomass; and fermentation and anaerobic digestion of sludge see Figure 1.

The renewable energy products are turpentine, stripper off gas SOG, methanol, hydrated sludge, biomass pellet, torriied biomass, bio-oil, syngas, bioethanol and biogas. Turpentine is recovered primarily from the digester relief gases. The gases are conducted to a cyclone separator where liquor carryover is removed, then to a condenser where the steam and turpentine are condensed.

Condensate from the condenser is then decanted to separate the turpentine. The condensed turpentine is immiscible and will loat on the condensed water permitting separation and transfer to storage. Turpentine then overlows to turpentine storage while the water underlow is combined with other contaminated condensate streams for steam stripping [23].

Stripping of Foul Condensates The major foul condensate treatment methods include air stripping and steam stripping. Steam stripping is the dominant condensate treatment. In the steam stripping for BOD, the top of the stripper becomes a distillation column to concentrate the methanol [8]. Up to 95 of the methanol can be removed from the foul condensate and captured in the overhead vapours from the steam stripping process [24]. The stripper-off gases SOG can be transported as a gas, or condensed and transported as a liquid and used to replace fossil fuel in lime kiln, recovery boiler, power boiler or incinerator.

Concentrated steam stripper condensates consist primarily of methanol which can be burned as a fuel. A combination of treatments that include air stripping, steam stripping, distillation and reverse osmosis is described to obtain puriied biomethanol suitable for sale or use on site Figure 2 [7]. Process and system of producing puriied methanol at pulp mills [7].

Pelletization Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i. Fuel pellets are more uniform in shape, size, energy content, and moisture than the paper mill residues, making them easier to transport, store, convey and need smaller storage space. Their high energy density means they have more energy by volume than paper mill residues [26]. Residues from the log debarking process in sawmills, wood composite mills, and pulp and paper mills can be used for pellet.

Lehtikangas [27] investigated the quality properties of pelletised sawdust, logging residues and bark, and concluded that bark and logging residues are suitable raw materials for pellets production, especially if the ash content is controlled.

Setiawan and Surachman [15] investigated reject waste pellets of paper mills as fuel and their contribution to greenhouse gas. The reject waste pellets had a high caloriic value calg and low ash 6. Utilization of 10 reject mixed with 90 coal as boiler fuel could reduce CO 2 gas as greenhouse gas GHG emissions by about 9.

In order to improve the combustion characteristics of sludge, the most popular method is to mix the sludge with auxiliary fuel coal, refuse, sawdust etc, desulfurizer and binder to produce solid fuel. Thermal Conversion-Based Technologies Hydrothermal Treatment About 80 of water content of biosludge is recognized as bound water which cannot be separated by conventional dewatering devices such as centrifuge or ilter press due to high strength binding between water molecules and sludge solids surface [28] and the potential presence of biologically active organisms or compounds [29].

The hydrothermal treatment process can convert waste to value- added resources such as coal-like solid fuel or organic fertilizer. Differences of hydrothermal treatment, hydrothermal carbonization and hydrothermal liquefaction are presented in Table 5. Drying the feedstock is not needed in the hydrothermal process, which makes it especially suitable for naturally wet biomass.

The hydrothermal process occurred in aqueous medium which involves complex sequences of reactions including solvolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation, and hydrogenation of functional groups [31]. Typical operating parameters of hydrothermal treatment, hydrothermal carbonization, hydrothermal liquefaction [30] No.

The produced solid fuel had higher heating value, comparable HC and OC atomic ratios with that of coal, water reduction after dewatering of raw and treated paper sludge was 5. Areeprasert et al. Torrefaction is based on the removal of oxygen decreasing OC ratio from biomass which aims to produce a fuel with increased energy density by decomposing the reactive hemicellulose fraction [36].

During torrefaction the biomass polymers, especially hemicelluloses, are degraded mainly by depolymerization, demethoxylation, bond cleavage and condensation reactions [37]. A typical mass and energy balance of torrefaction is 70 of the mass is retained as a solid product containing 90 of the initial energy content; 30 of the mass is converted into torrefaction gases i.

In addition to densifying energy content, torrefaction also reduces the hydroscopic property of biomass, making the biomass absorb less moisture when stored [4]. Reckamp et al. In combination with pelletization, the aim is to produce a durable biobased fuel pellet of high energy density, with a high degree of homogeneity and hydrophobic characteristics [39].

Table 6 provides an overviewof the properties of TOP pellets in comparison with wood, torreied biomass and conventional wood pellets. Compared to non-torreied pellets TOP pellets show better hydrophobic behavior, strength and higher density [36].

A number of studies have shown that torrefaction increases the eficiency of biomass combustion [40], [41] and gasiication [42] processes. Table 6. The process is very complex and consists of both simultaneous and successive reactions when organic material is heated in a non-reactive atmosphere.

The long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen compounds in biomass break down into smaller molecules in the form of gases, condensable vapours tars and oils and solid charcoal [44]. Pyrolysis has attracted more interest in producing liquid fuel product because of its advantages in storage, transport and versatility in application such as combustion engines, boilers, turbines, etc. Based on the operating condition, pyrolysis can be classiied into slow, fast and lash pyrolysis Table 7. Char can be directly used as fuel for combustion or gasiication.

Bio-oil can be directly used as fuel for combustion or further processed into fuels and chemicals derivation uses some methods such as catalytic cracking with zeolite, hydrogenation, steam reforming, emulsiication, and other metods [31]. Liquid bio-oil is composed of hundreds of chemical constituents from various chemical groups, primarily anhydrosugars, phenols, furans, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, whose compositions affect the physicochemical properties of bio-oil [38].

Strezov and Evans [45] investigated the products of paper sludge pyrolysis to determine their properties and potential energy value. The high acidic content indicates that in order to convert the paper sludge bio-oil to bio-diesel or petrochemicals, further upgrading would be necessary.

Venderbosch and Prins [46] collected the representative values for wood-derived pyrolysis oil properties and listed in Table 8. Table 8. Typical properties of wood derived crude bio-oil [46] Physical property Pyrolysis conditions Water content 15—30 Temperature K — pH 2. The gasiication agent can be air 21 O 2 and 79 mol N 2 , O 2 -enriched air, pure oxygen, steam, CO 2 or a mixture of such compounds [47], [48]. The producer gas can be processed into a gaseous fuel as a fuel or synthesis gas for the production of chemicals [50], [51].

The performance of the gasiication process is affected by several operating parameters such as biomass type, moisture content, reactor coniguration, gasiication agent, temperature, pressure, steambiomass ratio, oxygenbiomass ratio and others [52]. The gasiication process is usually can be represented by the equations below. Black liquor gasiication technologies are distinguished in two major classes; 1 Low temperature gasiication, and 2 High temperature gasiication.

Low temperature gasiier operates at — o C, below the melting point of inorganics, thus avoiding smelt-water explosions while high temperature gasiication units generally operate in the — o C range, and produce a molten smelt [53].

Black liquor gasiication can also be integrated with combined-cycle technology, i. Table 9 compares potential electricity or fuel production from various studies. Table 9. Bio-reinery performance estimates based on BLG studies e. Syamsudin et al. Biological Conversion-Based Technologies Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic digestion involves a series of processes in which microorganisms break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen via hydrolysis, acidogenesis fermentation, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis [55].

Anaerobic digestion has some advantages, such as a signiicant reduction of the biomass 30—70 and the production of biogas consists of about 50—80 of the energy carrier methane. Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for primary and secondary sludge from pulp and paper mills. Yunqin et al. Lin et al. Soetopo et al. Anaerobic digestion also has been successfully used for various pulp and paper mill streams Table Table The cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars obtained through acid and enzymatic hydrolysis can eficiently be used for ethanol fermentation either by separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF or simultaneous sacchariication and fermentation SSF.

Some studies available related to fermentation of paper sludge for ethanol production by SHF and SSF, most of these studies used Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tabel The high lignocellulosic content of the paper sludge Tabel 11 offers an opportunity as a feedstock for production of ethanol. Polysaccharides present in the sludge are highly accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis due to the physical and chemical processing undertook during pulp and paper manufacturing [62].

Compared to other cellulosic feedstocks, paper sludge have negative feedstock cost, no requirement for pre-treatment to be made amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis, and integration of processes into a preexisting industrial infrastructure at a mill. Typical composition of dry paper sludge [63] No.

Component Amount gg dry paper sludge 1. Total sugar 0. Other sugars 0. Clay 0. Others 0. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: 1 using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and 2 co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed signiicant environmental impact improvements.

Chen et al. Some studies related to fermentation of pulp and paper sludge for ethanol production No. Material Process Result References 1. Paper sludge SHF with cellulase and S. Paper sludge SSF with a cellulase produced from paper sludge by the hyper- cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 for sacchari- ication, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ14 for ethanol production. Paper sludge is a good raw material for bioethanol production [63] 3. Paper sludge SSCF batch experiments with solids concentration of gL Conversions of paper sludge to ethanol of 51 with a maximum ethanol concentra- tion of 19 gL.

These resources are produced in all stages of the pulping and papermaking process. Energy-rich biomass in pulp mill includes bark, sawdust, wood waste, pins, ines, knots, foul condensates, black liquor, and sludge. Energy-rich rejects in paper mill includes iber bundles, plastics, foils and polystyrene, deinking and non-deinking sludge. And a number of paper companies Domtar, for one, with its Paperbecause program have also stepped into the ring.

The industry has got some momentum going and the sustainability of the movement is what it s all about. Dean Co. Copyright by O Brien Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. Box , London BRC. All payments must be made in U. Credit cards are accepted. Reproduction of by any means of the whole or part of PaperAge, without written permission, is prohibited.

The primary project in this investment was the replacement of the press section on No. The new press section was supplied by PMT Italia. The investment also included projects in the fiber and utilities areas to support production of these strategically important grades. The installation and startup of the new press and the supporting projects were completed on schedule in early February.

Kapstone s North Charleston mill operates three paper machines with a combined capacity of about , tpy. Bosworth has distribution facilities in Houston, Austin and San Antonio, in addition to three retail paper stores. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

Gould Jr. This is a strategic fit for Western-BRW s existing operations and will also provide us with an additional operating location in San Antonio. The purchase price reflects an EBITDA multiple of less than six times based on the mill s financial results for the 12 months ending December and the expected operating efficiencies, primarily due to the location of the mill on the West Coast.

The transaction is structured as an asset purchase. In , the mill produced , tons on two paper machines and two pulp dryers that made various paper grades including containerboard, specialty kraft paper and pulp. The Tacoma Kraft Mill operates a megawatt green biomass fuel cogeneration facility that was completed in and sells electricity under a long-term contract.

Adding a West Coast mill will improve our ability to satisfy West Coast customers and generate significant operating efficiencies across our system. We look forward to working with the entire Simpson team to build on the fine relationships they have developed over the years with the Tacoma Kraft Mill s customers, as well as enhancing the satisfaction of RockTenn s customers in the western United States, said Jim Porter, President of RockTenn s Corrugated Packaging segment.

The downtime began on Dec. In keeping with the company s swing mill strategy, the FSC Mill will continue to operate by swinging production between both NBHK pulp and dissolving pulp to best respond to changing market conditions, particularly in light of the interim anti-dumping trade duty currently imposed by China s Ministry of Commerce. Kemira s FennoBond dry strength and FennoRez Temporary wet strength products help our customers enhance sheet properties, reduce basis weight, optimize furnish costs, and increase machine speeds.

Kemira s FennoStrength resins are the highest solids products commercially available, delivering unbeatable cost efficiency for permanent wet strength applications. Displaced employees will have the opportunity to apply for employees through this difficult time. After thoughtful consideration, we have determined that employees will be offered separation pay. This has been a tough decision, one where we carefully reviewed all alternatives to closing the plant. Labor Agreements Resolute Forest Products recently announced a five-year renewal of the master collective agreement covering four unionized U.

Unionized employees voted overwhelmingly to ratify the agreement at mills in Augusta, Georgia; Calhoun, Tennessee; Catawba, South Carolina; and Coosa Pines, Alabama, effective as of February 14, At Resolute, we believe in succeeding together, where every member s contribution is important to reach our collective goals and ensure our long-term success, said Richard Garneau, president and chief executive officer. We re very pleased to have quickly reached an agreement with union leadership and members to ensure we remain a competitive employer, but also one that maintains its competitive edge.

The agreement improves wages in each of its five years and continues the partnership with all unions on employee safety and efficiency. In addition to securing high-quality healthcare, it will encourage consumer behavior to control costs, allow employees to benefit from wellness initiatives, and significantly reduce the Company s other postretirement benefits, or OPEB, liabilities.

The four mills, together with the Company s other U. At the time of the announcement, First Quality did not disclose the facilities where the machines will be installed. The startup of these machines is expected to be in the third quarter of and third quarter of , respectively.

First Quality Tissue noted that the installation of its already-purchased ATMOS tissue machine, with expected annual capacity of 70, tons, is well underway with an expected startup in the first quarter of at the existing Anderson, South Carolina site. Upon the completion of the above-mentioned machine installations, First Quality Tissue will increase its total number of tissue machines to 7 with an estimated capacity of , tons.

The new company will go to market as Sabin Robbins Converting Company. No major changes to the company are planned. With the purchase of Sabin Robbins we gain one of the finest facilities and some of the most advanced equipment in the industry, in addition to a highly skilled and dedicated staff, said Nathan F.

John J. Grymes, President of the new company, added, It is our plan to fully engage in the day-to-day operations of the company with the intent to further improve and grow the excellent product and service platforms which already exist. Our goal is to provide the finest products and the greatest customer service to the marketplace. Sabin Robbins, based in West Chester, Ohio, is a fine paper merchant specializing in purchasing, warehousing, converting and distributing job lot and over run paper.

The company also operates a converting facility in Mansfield, Ohio. In addition, Tembec confirmed to news service provider EUWID that it had a conditional sale agreement with Paper Excellence to sell the Chetwynd pulp mill and that the deal was subject to a due diligence review.

Tembec idled the mill in September of According to Unifor, Paper Excellence plans to restart production at the mill once the sale is completed. The sale of the Tembec mill to Paper Excellence Canada Holding Corporation is expected to be complete in the spring of , Unifor said. Unifor noted that it was able to negotiate a new collective agreement with Paper Excellence that approximates the industry pattern for wages and benefits.

With more than , members, Unifor is Canada s largest union in the private sector. Flags, too! Arauco s mill in southern Chile will see overall production jump to 2. The project, called the Proyecto Modernizacion y Ampliacion Planta Arauco MAPA , involves the suspension of Arauco mill s Line 1, a eucalyptus pulp line, the modernization of Line 2, a pine pulp line, and the construction of a third 1.

Arauco has five pulp mills in Chile and one in Argentina. The expansion project would take place at Araurco Mill, which currently has two pulp lines Line I, batch process, , tpy eucalyptus kraft pulp; and Line II, continuous process, bleached pine , tpy. Sales of paper to the domestic market totaled 5. During , the sector had major achievements in the measures against the improper usage of tax-exempt paper, which is exclusively destined to the printing of books, newspapers and magazines. Labeling requirements on tax-exempt paper packaging, the commitment of the production chain with the action and, mainly, the nationalization of RECOPI Recognition and Control System for Tax-exempt Paper Operations were the most relevant facts.

In the case of RECOPI, the sector expects that State governments implement the system as soon as possible to close eventual loopholes in the law. The transaction will be funded with existing cash and borrowings from the Company s current revolving line of credit, GPK said. We believe Benson Group fits perfectly with our strategy in Europe. The acquisition broadens our Food and Consumer Products offerings and extends our reach into the Store Brand segment. This combination also allows us to broaden our customer base and to offer our current global customers a wider range of new products and services.

Like our strategy in the United States, we are committed to growing our European business around food and beverage end markets and optimizing our supply chain footprint around our customers needs, Scheible explained. The Benson Group operates four folding carton facilities in the U.

Kymi is a profitable and competitive pulp mill in comparison with the world s leading pulp mills. The project will begin immediately, UPM said, and involves a new pulp drying machine, modernization of the softwood fiber line, a new debarking plant as well as improvements in the energy balance of the Kymi integrate consisting of pulp and paper mills.

We have set ourselves clear targets for growth initiatives in pulp production, biofuels, specialty papers in Asia and label materials for the coming three years. The Kymi investment will bring a significant contribution to this, Pesonen said. YFY Paper Mfg. PM 3 produces packaging paper with an annual production capacity of , metric tons, which will mainly be used for food packaging. The reactors convert dissolved organic contaminants into biogas with a high calorific value, which can then be used for the generation of steam or power to continue contributing to the manufacturing process.

One of the features that make the system so easy to work with is the simultaneous joining which allows the inner and outer pipe to be cut to the same length and joined together in one simple step. Just about any combination of these pipe materials is possible.

Total production in was around 91 million tonnes, over 11 million tonnes lower than the peak total paper production of million tonnes in Mill and machine closures in the EU27 in amounted to 2. Output of market pulp increased by around 4.

It is estimated that utilization of paper for recycling by CEPI members increased by around 0. The fall of the graphic paper sector demand was offset by the more positive development in the packaging paper and board sector. This expansion is a vital part of our strategy, and a must if we are to be able to develop our business.

As well as increasing pulp production, this investment means that the plant can be made even more energy efficient. Our supplies of green energy can be increased still further thanks to this investment, Idermark added. While the EU27 have registered a 1. A moderate growth between 1. The new machine will have an annual capacity to produce , tonnes of specialty papers and labelling materials and is expected to start up at the end of According to UPM, The investment scope has been moderately revised by specifying more focused infrastructure investments as compared to the original scope.

Instead of constructing a new power plant, UPM will upgrade existing boilers providing opportunity to consider more environmentally effective fuels or solutions for the mill s energy supply in the future. The mill also aims at utilizing existing facilities more effectively instead of building new infrastructure. We have set ourselves clear targets for focused growth initiatives over the next three years in biofuels, specialty papers in Asia, label materials and pulp production, said Jussi Pesonen, UPM s CEO and President.

The business fundamentals for the investment continue to be positive as both release liner materials and uncoated woodfree office and specialty papers enjoy a healthy demand outlook in Asia. Petersburg, Russia Finnish specialty cartonboard producer Pankaboard said that it will open a sales office in St. Petersburg, Russia, effective March The new plant will solidify the company s current and future capacity to address the growing Asian market for premium press felt product technology.

Xerium is building the facility in the Bacheng Industry Zone, one of Kunshan s largest industrial zones, about 60 km west of Shanghai. Building construction is expected to be completed in early , with production expected to start mid We chose Kunshan because of its proximity to the markets these products will serve as well as its pool of educated workers, the availability of qualified subcontractors, and the exceptional work ethic of the area s people, said Harold Bevis, President and CEO of Xerium.

Completion of this strategic transaction assures Thiele s future as a privately held, world class global kaolin producer and will allow for a continuing focus on providing outstanding customer service and tailored kaolin products that generate value for its customers. Paul Kirschling, President, Thiele Since , Stora Enso has been a valuable partner and we thank them for their contributions over the years, said Paul Kirschling, Thiele s President.

We understand that Thiele is no longer a strategic asset for Stora Enso and we certainly wish them success in the future. On the other hand, Thiele looks forward to its future financially sound and well positioned for continuing success as a global kaolin supplier. The repurchase of the Stora Enso shares consolidates Thiele s shareholding base largely among founding families and their descendants, as well as present and former company employees.

Valmet s delivery includes the following parts of the pulp mill: two biomass gasifiers, two biomass boilers, an evaporation system, two lime kilns and two pulp dryers. The value of the order is approximately EUR million. This order is unique by the scale of the parts to be supplied. The evaporation system and pulp dryers to be supplied will be the largest in the world. Berkowitz began his career in with Central Paper Company.

In assuming her new position, Buckman Gibson will step away from her role as Chairman of the Board of Buckman, a position she has held since Otto Heissenberger, Jr. Williams has served as Domtar s president and CEO since January and has over 30 years of experience in the consumer products John Williams and packaging industry.

As a member of the first level team, Pozdnyakov will be in charge of management of Bratsk Mill, forest branch in Bratsk district and ramping-up of new softwood Alexander Pozdnyakov pulp line. Ilim also announced that Raisa Bouneeva, who currently holds the position of Bratsk Branch director, will move to Ilim Group s head-office in St. Petersburg, Russia to manage large capital projects.

The award is PIMA s highest honor and is bestowed on seniorlevel executives in the pulp, paper or converting industries for excellence in management and outstanding contributions to the industry as a whole. A crushed roll of paper can cost manufacturers and their customers countless hours, dollars, and headaches. But by simply inserting core plugs into each roll, paper makers can reduce damage and loss claims for just pennies per roll.

As a family-owned New England company that has been producing core plugs for over 50 years, Souhegan guarantees a high-quality, steady inventory of the products you need, whenever you need them. For more information on standard plug sizes and custom options call us at or visit us online at CORSAVER PLUG Designed for fine coated papers, the name says it all this little gem can withstand three times more pressure than most other center hole plugs on the market.

In independent testing, our CorSaver plugs withstood a 10, lb crush in a HQ5. By Harold M. Cody Uncoated freesheet markets confirm that the decline in usage began the New Year, from the is fairly widespread across many mill standpoint, in probably key grade segments. Shipments the best position they ve been in for several years. By swallowing the hard pill of a significant and permanent closure of U. A closure of over one million tons of capacity in a short period of time has rebooted the uncoated fine paper business by shifting the supply and demand balance significantly to favor producers.

Shortly after the largest closure was announced, the first of two price hikes was initiated and a second increase announcement By swallowing the hard pill of a significant and permanent closure of U. In contrast, shipments of offset, envelope and form bond grades fell by 3. The uncoated papers business continues to face severe challenges followed shortly thereafter. While the improvement in pricing is likely the best news producers have seen for some time, not all of the news is good.

North American demand for printing and writing papers continues to contract, posting a 1. Uncoated freesheet demand fell a more modest 1. The largest drop in demand was posted by coated mechanical grades, which fell by 6. The ongoing move to increased use of mobile devices, electronic bill paying and online resources is hitting key grades such as envelope papers particularly hard. In contrast, there are a few beacons of light. For example, in the other papers segment, there is some optimism that this category could actually post gains as the wide range of specialty grades comprising this group has shown some growth.

The segment includes many products and end uses ranging from release liner paper for labels to specialty packaging papers used for take-out food a growing market. The largest capacity reduction, which was huge, was by International Paper at the big Courtland, Alabama mill, where three uncoated freesheet machines with a capacity of about three quarters of a million tons were retired.

Following the shutdown of the first production line late last year, the last two machines which accounted for about , tpy were reported to have been shut down in early February. Additional capacity reductions announced or enacted last year include an additional , tpy by Boise Paper and Georgia-Pacific on three paper machines.

Two paper machines with a capacity of about , tpy will be shut down at the Boise mill in International Falls, Minnesota and GP shut down one PM with an annual capacity of about , tpy in late at the Crossett, Arkansas mill. Last year, the decline in uncoated freesheet papers demand, at under 1.

Soon most producers had announced increases for the latter part of October. By February , prices had moved up across a wide spectrum of grades. However, prices continue to lag below year ago levels. Trying to maintain momentum in early , additional price increase announcements were made by most of the major players.

One notable development to watch is the late announcement by the U. Postal Service of a surprise 6. The increase will certainly have a negative impact on demand although it may be modest. The impact is likely to be felt even more so by coated grades. Postal Service mail volume data illustrate one underlying cause for the drop in demand and are a key indicator.

For example, for the fiscal year ending last September, first class mail volume in pieces of mail was down 4. Standard mail volume data was better with mail volume in pieces up by 1. First class mail is a major user of envelope and several printing grades as well as cut-size papers, while standard mail volume is a larger user of printing papers such as coated and uncoated groundwood.

Not a Bad Start to With a head of steam behind them producers appear to be in the best position they ve been in years. Operating rates are expected to remain high due to the reduction in supply providing the platform for produces to push through the recent announcement and possibly additional increases as well. On the upside, overall paper use may benefit from stronger economic activity expected this year, with most forecasts projecting a GDP increase of about 2.

One thing to monitor is creep capacity at coated mills caused by weak coated paper demand. By simply shutting down the coater, mills may target increased tonnage at the uncoated market given the recent rise in prices which make it an attractive option. Overall, however, producers started off the year with a bang and while it s still a tough world it should be a better year than last year.

Unless you are a paper buyer. The tough measures that some of the big guns in Europe have taken over the last two years appear to be working. Renewable Packaging had a strong last quarter with significant year-on-year improvement in earnings and cash flow.

In fact the packaging and tissue grades in Europe have continued to perform strongly despite the recession. Karvinen said that he felt positive about with a new container board mill in Eastern Europe Ostroleka , a pulp mill in Latin America Montes del Plata and board mill and forestry in China Guangxi. He was quite lyrical, This will be a thrilling year this is a string of pearls we will continue to build on.

An exciting journey and we are making real progress. In the next three years we will target growth in biofuels, woodfree specialty papers in China, label materials and pulp production. He singled out the main improvements in biorefining which includes pulp , plywood and paper. He said UPM started last year with a brisk headwind but strong cash flow helped post good results. By the last quarter of UPM s strong cost savings had returned the paper division to profitability.

Pesonen thinks Europe will slowly improve this year compared to He expects the first half of this year to be broadly stable. CEO Jan Johansson talked up tissue growth in Europe and North America, steady demand for personal care products in Europe, strong growth in emerging markets and improved delivery in Europe for solid-wood products. Johansson said SCA had partnered with Swedish research institute Innventia to look at possible scenarios for the paper industry.

He stated, We need to forget mass production and go for specialty high-profit products to compensate for the reduced volumes of traditional pulp and paper products. Norske Skog Industry analysts allege that the for sale sign still hangs over Norske Skog.

Its CEO, Sven Ombudstvedt, has done a lot to try to revive the Norweigian paper producer with permanent capacity cuts and mill closures and sales in Brazil, Europe and Thailand. He stated that high energy costs had hobbled the company. I don t fully understand the energy dilemma due to the fact that Norway is a rich oil and gas producer, and one would think Norske Skog s domestic operations would benefit from these resources.

Ombudstvedt said that huge, permanent production cuts in Europe in LWC 1. He predicts the cuts will boost higher prices and give better margins in for these grades. Conclusion It seems clear to me, and probably every reader, that painful lessons have been learned and industry behavior has changed forever. The relentless focus on matching supply to demand, the reduction of costs, exiting unprofitable businesses, seeking alternative technology, products, and emerging markets, and unfortunately, the ongoing cutting of jobs, will undoubtedly reshape the industry in ways I can only guess at.

But as brutal as all of this can be, it is the only way the industry will survive and hopefully prosper. He can be reached by at: Unpack the power of Maximyze for packaging. Let Buckman help you improve sheet strength and increase productivity Buckman announces new Maximyze enzymatic technology for packaging.

For your recycled fiber sourced grades, it can significantly improve sheet strength and drainage, so you can increase machine speeds. With a customized Maximyze program you can reduce fiber costs, steam consumption, transportation costs and your environmental footprint, too. A typical case. A large, modern machine making linerboard from recycled fiber lost production due to drainage limitations.

Buckman applied a Maximyze program to improve drainage, so machine speeds could be increased by as much as mpm. Find out more. To learn more about Maximyze for packaging, contact your Buckman representative or visit buckman. Buckman Laboratories International, Inc. Kapstone s founders Roger Stone and Matt Kaplan have proven to have sharp eyes for acquisitions and solid strategies for growth, but both men emphasize that the sizable paper and packaging producer they ve created offers a small company feel for its customers and employees alike.

The Longview operation included a paper mill with five paper machines that produce over one million tons per year of linerboard, corrugating medium and kraft paper. The deal also included six box plants and one sheet plant. The packaging operations are located in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah and Washington, which greatly expanded Kapstone s reach into markets throughout the West.

Today, KapStone operates four paper mills that produce a wide range of kraft and recycled products ranging from containerboard including liner and medium to kraft papers, saturating kraft and folding carton board. Its mills product portfolio contains several branded products as well as a focus on extensible kraft paper grades and on highperformance, lightweight linerboard.

Currently, Kapstone is positioned as the fifth largest producer of containerboard in North America with a capacity of 1. MK: In addition to being really strong assets and strong people, the price that we paid for Longview was attractive relative to the cash flow that we felt it could generate. So we obviously saw some tremendous value on the financial side as well. Could you give use a little background on how KapStone Paper and Packaging came to be? You ve done an excellent job growing KapStone and creating value through acquisitions: IP s unbleached kraft paper business in Jan.

All of our subsequent deals involved purchasing paper mills which were operating at or near capacity limiting the opportunities for organic growth.

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